laws tsunami in puerto rico the danger forgotten unam is how it is known internationally to a tsunami the same is a Japanese word that means harbor wave a tsunami is a series of waves produced by an impulsive disturbance that displaces a body of water these waves advance to the coasts and can present as a huge tide that goes up quickly or like a wall of turbulent water approaching quickly towards the coast once they reach the coast they can produce large floods the tsunami can be the product of a earthquake a landslide an eruption volcanic or an impact of an object on the surface of the ocean most tsunamis occur as direct or indirect consequence of a earthquake be it this one local regional or at a great distance so that a earthquake occasions a tsunami the failure of this one must be located under the sea or at least a part of she in general history shows that only earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.5 can generate harmful tsunamis although we can not forget that smaller earthquakes can produce landslides that your can generate a local tsunami harmful the greater the magnitude of the earthquake larger is expected to be the tsunami generated but not all earthquakes are produce once during an earthquake the movement at long the fault occurs so fast that the response and training in the surface of the sea is an image identical to the fund formation Marine once the deformation is formed in the surface of the sea the force of gravity tries to take it to its equilibrium position but the inertia makes it exceed and this generates the wave train known as tsunami the greater the depth in the Earth’s crust of earthquake focus less efficient is the transfer of earthquake energy the tsunami and the reason is because the deeper the smallest earthquake will be the vertical displacement of the fault in the seabed it may even happen that the breaking of the failure does not manifest itself in any way on the seabed most of the faults are along fairies and this brings as a consequence that the energy of the tsunami generated is propagate mostly in the address perpendicular to the direction of the fails this type of failure is common to what along subduction zones such as that we have north and south of port rich worldwide have occurred earthquakes that in turn have originated destructive tsunamis although most of these have happened in the pacific basin there were also some that were reported in the Atlantic and the Caribbean the first of November of 1755 occurred an earthquake of magnitude 8 points 7 to southwest of portugal the majority of the 50,000 to 70,000 dead were not for the earthquake in yes but because of the tsunami that not only affected Portugal and other parts of europe but it crossed the atlantic in about eight hours producing or those of 23 feet on the island of java 15 feet of san martín and 12 feet in ancient and dominica all in the Lesser Antilles one of the largest earthquakes 20th century it happened on May 22, 1960 in Chile left more than two million people homeless and more than 3,000 dead root of this one large tsunami proportions wreaked havoc in chile Hawaii Japan and the Philippines and the coast West of the United States in Hawaii where there was already an alert system the tsunami caused 61 deaths 282 injured and millions of dollars in losses the coast of a suv in japan was devastated with 100 deaths 85 missing 855 injured and about a thousand 700 homes destroyed another very large earthquake happened in alaska on a holy Friday on March 27 from 1964 at five thirty-six the afternoon in some places the earthquake was felt by several minutes the tsunami generated caused 123 deaths 106 in alaska and 17 on the coast west of the united states in addition to numerous damages along the coast in the gulf of alaska to see nor in Canada and Hawaii at seven and 16 in the evening of the 1st of September 2015 In Nicaragua, an earthquake of magnitude 7.0 the same almost did not feel but it generated a tsunami whose waves they reached up to 26 feet and penetrated up to one mile inland the official balance of the disaster was 116 dead 78 disappeared and 13 thousand five hundred people homeless swell associated the tsunami was recorded also in ecuador chile and costa rica this type of earthquake where the size of the wave does not keep proportion with its intensity is known as earthquakes genetic tsunamis in the Caribbean tsunamis have also been generated as consequence of earthquakes that occurred in the region in puerto rico both the 1867 earthquake and the 1918 generate a significant tsunami and the tsunami associated with the earthquake of 1946 in the Dominican Republic it could observe on the north coast of the island especially in arecibo twenty days after a devastating hurricane swept the virgin islands and after having felt in sant You take a few tremors days before 18 November 5th, 2015 a strong earthquake shook the islands virgins and the eastern area of ​​our Puerto Rico the epicenter of the earthquake was located in the depression of the virgin islands Between the islands of San Tomás Santa Cruz and vieques it was a lovely day suddenly to that at 12.45 in the afternoon it was heard a noise that intensified until that the earthquake began to feel lasting about a minute and a half minutes later the sea rose like a white and straight wall of 15 to 20 feet of height and went forward towards the bay sweeping the boats and lifting large warships the rising of the waves was repeated for the second time after an interval ten minutes and it seemed to be worse than – Yes. flooding more arias the damages in land were greater for merchants as the tsunami He entered the village submerging the stores that for the most part were in front of the mall in santa cruz the earthquake also felt with strength in fredrix ted after having felt the earthquake the most started to withdraw and returned throwing towards the beach one of the warships that I was anchored in the bay when the sea retreated again He left the ship on a reef coral in vieques and snake the earthquake was felt strongly immediately after the earthquake a big ball appeared on the south side of vieques that bathed its north coast in Naguabo closed the church and the sea climbed several meters towards the town in the coast of arroyo and salinas the wave of the sea was high in stream advanced 120 feet above ground on October 11, 1918 at 10 and 17 in the morning the island of puerto rico is shuddered as one of the earthquakes strongest in its history which is he felt little more than a minute damaged was in front of the noise that I would see but the tremendous noise then she of pink house feet after allegedly having terminal me roberto ships or abalo government go as the epicenter of the earthquake it was located in the mona canyon 25 miles from the Aguadilla coast the earthquake felt stronger in the western area of ​​the country where the desperate population was launched to the street before the fear of getting caught within the agrarian structures and now we’re going to think that there’s nothing make san mamés a viana was scary fear that you see the local geography sapa above and the ones below sing from rada callao limestone stone for him he calculated that approximately 800 structures were destroyed a total of 116 people died of these 40 perished as a consequence direct from the tsunami that started affect the island immediately after the earthquake and the tsunami reached a maximum height of 20 feet in the aguadilla area where five minutes after the earthquake the sea began to withdraw exposing the view reefs and sectors of the seabed and shortly after, the first wave arrived all part of the city at the height of the ball varied in different parts of City 32 people reported as cats and I it does not allow us more than protests because I thought that more area as the service goods and for that in melilla puerto rico remains in the table in punta borinquen aguadilla the sea retired almost immediately after the earthquake and when he returned reached the 20 feet height going into 300 feet in pointed hole also one knee drowned about eight people and were uprooted hundreds of palms in this place it was calculated that the waves They reached a height of up to 20 feet in mayagüez where it is estimated that he arrived 20 minutes after feeling the earthquake and the wave and world the floors lower of the buildings located near the seashore in this area the wave reached a height up to five feet above the level of Mar a little further south of the city the elevation reached up to 4.5 feet however the strength was sufficient to start and drag homes towards the fence in red cape the wave came to have three feet of height the sea retired one hour after the earthquake here a small boat anchored to about 150 feet from the beach where the water has normally around 4.5 feet Resting depth on the background some minutes in isabela the work was seen by several people little more than half an hour after earthquake in arecibo this wave was seen picking up the river that is named after this municipality in canovanas the great river of loíza it receded and then went up as three feet of your normal level the wave of violence the mouth of this river about 20 minutes after the earthquake other scenarios that cause tsunamis are the landslides volcanic eruptions or impact of an object on the surface of the ocean those once produced by these phenomena have great height near its place of origin decreasing your height quickly with distance by so these tsunamis have affect the places closest to your point of origin an underwater landslide or a slip that originates in earth but reaches a body of water can generate a tsunami by moving a mass of water on our island has been found the evidence of a huge landslide on the southern slope of the trench Puerto Rico has been estimated to be the same had a volume of around 220 cubic miles and slid towards the bottom of the trench to 28 thousand feet of depth it depending on the time of duration of the sliding models by computer predict that the sea may have reached heights that they vary between about 87 to 227 feet along the entire north coast of Puerto Rico there is also the risk that generate a tsunami by eruptions submarine kino underwater volcanoes in the case of submarine eruptions the danger is due to the submarine volcano quique is located southeast of the Caribbean 450 miles from Puerto Rico this volcano has remained active by many years and continues to grow he himself has erupted more than ten times since 1939 in the case of underwater eruptions the danger is due to volcanoes like that of montserrat which has been very active in recent years in this case the generation of a local tsunami may be due to a Debris avalanche that reaches the sea or because part of the volcano is collapse towards the sea in both cases the height of the tsunami local can exceed 30 feet although would decay rapidly affecting only the closest islands and not puerto rico although the probability is very small a tsunami could be generated as consequence of the impact of comets or asteroids some think that this event could have caused the extinction of dinosaurs in deep sea the height of a tsunami generated by an earthquake is generally less than 3 feet although the rapidity of propagation of the disturbance It can be in excess of 450 miles per time given the low height and deeper along with a distance between wave and wave of many miles makes a tsunami I went unnoticed in waters deep when you get near the coast in where the depth is reduced the height can drastically increase up by a factor of 10 to 20 feet at the same time the speed of translation of the wave is reduced to 20 miles per hour or less a tsunami is a wave train where not necessarily the first wave is the highest the distance between the different waves in a tsunami can reach 36 to 300 miles depending on the size of the source and depth below a Tsunami the entire water column regardless of the depth is in motion while that in a normal wave the water flows in the same direction for several seconds and only a few feet of the surface of the sea in a tsunami the entire column of water moves in the same address for several minutes this along with the great distance between waves makes the volume of water and the energy associated with a tsunami be of a magnitude much greater than that of a extreme swell such as that of a category 5 hurricane the most intense that there are tsunamis in which the waves do not break like normal waves of the sea on the beaches and appear to be like a rapidly rising tide as an example of this the 1918 tsunami in mayagüez while another type exists of tsunami whose waves break near the coastal line and they propagate towards the coast as a vertical wall of water turbulent foam filled this commonly occurs where the tsunami tries to go through channels or river mouths entries of software bay as was the case with the tsunami thinking more in 1867 material damages direct when the wave penetrates earth in are due to the flood at impact or force of water on structures including the impact of all floating material that can serve of projectile and erosion of the terrain Indirect damages such as fires can be higher the vertical reach of a tsunami and how much land inland can to arrive is a function of its sea height outside but they are also influenced by topography and variability in the depths of the ocean near the place tsunamis can penetrate through the river mouths and make damage thousands of feet inland this could be observed in the tsunami of 1918 in Puerto Rico tsunamis drag material from the seabed and deposit it land inside The presence of this material can be finish at some point in particular by digging or auger 2 the study of past tsunamis through this methodology is known as studies of several tsunamis studies how these have been carried out in Puerto Rico showing that we have been affected by more tsunamis than those of 1867 1918 and 1946 when a tsunami attacks an island small relative to the distance the inmate it happens sometimes that the older heights and floods does not occur in the side of the island where the tsunami but on the opposite side this was observed in Vieques in 1867 the force exerted by the currents of a tsunami is huge where the current is moves to five miles per hour is equivalent approximately to winds hurricanes of 160 miles per hour corresponding to a hurricane category 5 That’s why, even though the height of tsunamis one would think that they were not dangerous because of their strength are able to knock down buildings bridges reinforced concrete astral automobiles and all structure that is not well anchored to the ground including large boats there are different fault zones located around puerto rico that they could generate not only earthquakes significant but also tsunamis the fact that puerto rico is located in a convenience zone of tectonic plates so puerto rico is located in an area of high activity seismic activity seismic in this that our case for example they are colliding with each other the plates North America and the Caribbean plate the plaza las americas this merger has born the silver the change in addition to that the silver the Caribbean is moving below puerto rico and that is the reason why the public north of our island in the trench of puerto rico the greatest depth of the Atlantic ocean and the maximum negative anomaly of gravity of the planet is an area with many faults that mark the contact between north america plate and the plate CARIBBEAN just south of the trench but at north of puerto rico is the seismic zone of the 19 degrees north that includes several fault systems the mona truck where the 1918 earthquake is an area of ​​many faults further to the northwest it extends the northern fault from the mona cannon into the interior of the Dominican Republic in the area of passage of the monkey have been identified Several fault segments do not interconnected with variable lengths the subduction zone in the trench of dead people south of puerto rico extends from the south of the republic Dominican to Puerto Rico in the depression of the virgin islands limited to the south by the island of santa cross and to the north by the island of santo TOMÁS there are a series of faults extending from fajardo to the northeast of the virgin islands is the seismic zone of the hat a very active area daily in the local port area rich are recorded from one to three tremors since colonial times more of 610 tremors have been reported as senses 10 of these have caused injuries and deaths son damage to the ownership of these those of 1867 1918 and 1946 generated puerto rico tsunamis being an island all its coasts are exposed to tsunamis but one of the areas more prone to because all its development is on the coast is the area of ​​aguada and remote aguadilla of 18 creates a giant wave that affects the coast to aguadú aguadilla coast corner and mayagüez for that story we mark a certain point where now they are completely populated and that area that is fully populated and daily and that is that we we are going to plow for people once they see a movement like this they can retire as soon as possible from here staff of the agency for the emergency management works in a prevention system that includes simulacra labeling areas dangerous education and even a plan of eviction for schools that are near the sea with them to the caló in a school that is close to the coast of Aguadilla is one of the most prone to we’re about a year and we started with orientation programs both the teachers like the students are they trained in first aid that they did more drills one did labeling of jódar already that they can do in case of a tsunami one of the best tsunami warnings place to nature itself some of the natural signs it could be an earthquake that feels so strong that one can not keep on foot an abrupt withdrawal from the sea a sudden increase in sea level a strong sound coming from evil but besides those natural warnings it’s possible to establish systems of monitoring for tsunamis in the basin of the Pacific where tsunamis occur with the greatest frequency in the world exists the international alert center pacific tsunamis located in Hawaii and the tsunami warning center of alaska and west coast of the states UNIDOS these centers use data collected through a worldwide network of seismographs and gauges to issue alerts and notices based on existing models of tsunamis on our island the seismic network of puerto rico a dependence of the department of geology of the port university rich in mayagüez is the institution responsible for detection analysis location and disclosure of information on seismicity for these purposes has a network of stations seismic distributed along and puerto rico width including the islands of mona discard dead box vieques and snake and the virgin islands these actions send signal directly or through repeaters to the office of the seismic network in Mayaguez once here and when they start to record and us when we started to see the recording let’s have an idea of the size of the earthquake and if we perceive that an earthquake the amplitude of the movement is very large recorded then with that we can not have unit that is about a big event and possibly an event that could generate a network the seismic network of puerto rico together with the state agency for emergency management and disaster management and national meteorological service has established a protocol to respond to a possibility of tsunami and emit surveillance bulletins and or abyss a tsunami watch may be issued when one or more of the following conditions seismographic records of the network seismic have signs of an earthquake in the region of puerto rico with a magnitude of at least 6.5 the network seismic determines according to records seismographic that there has been a earthquake equal to or greater than 6.5 whose epicenter is located in the magma the intensity of the earthquake on the mercalli scale modified is 7 or more in some puerto rico point in an earthquake this intensity will all feel the event and it will be difficult to stand still if you are driving you can feel the earthquake windows dishes objects Glass real estate may be granted object fall off the shelves construction is of low quality will suffer damage to the soil can have small subsidence and stacking in pools and ponds you can see waves if it is confirmed that it has indeed produced a tsunami will be issued a tsunami warning bulletin On the other hand, if it is confirmed that has produced a tsunami or have already finished registering the effects of the tsunami will be issued a message from Paul kirk which means it’s safe return to normal it is important to remember that both in the 1918 as in the 1867 tsunami started releasing some parts of our coast only minutes after feel the shaking of the earthquake a situation like this would give very little time to issue a watch so that it is important that citizenship can recognize the signals of a Tsunami the withdrawal of water strange noises from the sea and immediately evict dangerous areas for tsunamis whose origin is slip without registering a strong earthquake before there is no system of any warning here it is critical to have a population that can recognize and act about significant changes in the behavior of the sea in the case of a volcanic eruption with potential genetic tsunami it could issue a watch or warning as long as the officials responsible for monitoring inform the relevant authorities the port rich before the real threat of an event like this one for puerto rico it is recommended to the population that educate and prepare for the possibility of a tsunami It is important to note that when it occurs a tsunami and an earthquake is in a crisis situation it is important that this plan is well articulated at the of household at the family or at the organization that is beforehand People know what action to take to Allah when an earthquake occurs or when there is proof of a tsunami I know if I have to go up to the fifth floor I know if I have to climb on top of the home or I know if I have to go towards another place or that is what that good planned for the time when happens the event is a moment of crisis it’s a problematic moment problem that we must already have all the answers to our actions Below are several rules of security that should be taken from now on and during an emergency Tsunami If you live or work near the coast you should have a plan to respond to a Tsunami If you live or work in a place that could be affected by a tsunami should have a safety backpack for take it with you to the place you choose as a refuge identify the places sure where I could go in In case of a tsunami, do exercises eviction should be avoided constructions of hospitals schools and other critical facilities in the near the coast you have to be alert to an emergency not all earthquakes cause tsunamis but some they do it during the earthquake the most important thing is to protect life of one and those around him there is look for the safest place to protect yourself take refuge the earthquake is so strong that you makes it difficult to stand up observes abnormal behavior of the sea or he heard a warning message or warning Tsunami must leave immediately the areas closest to the beach the Eviction can be horizontal or vertical in the case of solid structures the arrival of a tsunami is sometimes preceded by a notable increase or decrease in sea level this is the natural warning of the occurrence of a tsunami and should be Taking into account immediately do not be fooled by a wave small of a tsunami in a place of the coast can be extremely large to little distance from that place a tsunami It also consists of a single hour move away from danger areas until that the competent authorities have declared an end to the alert or warning all tsunamis like hurricanes are potentially destructive although it does not necessarily affect on all the coasts where it never passes approach the beach to observe a tsunami when it is so close that it can see the waves will be too late to escape during an emergency tsunami the management authorities of emergency police and others organizations will try to save their lives provide the maximum of your Cooperation. many people think that this something that something of science is not going to happen fiction and for which they have not taken the measures that must be taken to prepare for this eventuality because the realities that at any time a large earthquake can occur magnitude in puerto rico that generate Tsunamis whose waves could reach 15 20 25 feet tall and clothe in coastal areas of puerto rico and ante this reality the only solution is the preparation of citizenship both in sugar homes as place as time goes by without a tsunami we we are forgetful it’s hard to believe the devastating power that has our planet puerto rico is not exempt from all this education and prevention are our most important tools since somewhere and in any moment the forgotten danger will make us remember the devastating power of a Tsunami You a


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