Dez Project (Iran) – A Documentary on Construction of The Dez Dam


this is Khuzestan, the most arid and
desolate region of southwestern Iran the scene is set under the Blazing Sun on
the arid desert which stretches away to the windswept horizons the leading role
is played by thirst thirst which patches the earth men and animals life is
conditioned by water by the continual search for a few blades of grass in
order to survive this is the way it has been since ancient times since the first
indo-european tribes built irrigation works civilization has been dependent
upon water first Elamites and after then the Sumerians built their cities and
temples like this ziggurat that Chogha Zanbil near the
rivers archaeological discoveries have shown how in the elaborate hierarchy of
the Sumerian religion the count of the sky and that of water had very important
places these remains at sewers are one of the greatest religious centers are an
example the ancient Iranian civilization reached
its maximum expansion in the reigns of Cyrus Darius and series today the
children play among the ruins of the Summer Palace Darius built and all
unknowing tell each other the sad story of time the first civilization learned
how to make use of water and how not to be its slave but it was the Romans who
came later who made a vast net of roads with bridges which patched up are still
in use today over the big rivers the Romans however did not merely build
works of strategic importance they went further and harnessed water for peaceful
and progressive purposes they built Mills like these in Shushtar
which are still in use today and they built them which turned the
desert into the granary of the Middle East long Arab domination brought no
improvements the villages and towns came back to the riverbanks and of the
control of the waters nothing remained except for the traces left by the Romans
even today the sighting of the principal inhabited centres is dependent upon the
river system although the Arab civilization reached
splendid heights the extremely refined architecture and the beautiful
polychrome domes and minarets cannot mask the fact that the farmer has
remained backward thought and forced all his life to feverishly pursue a drop of
water and a blade of grass something new is happening the age long
silence has been broken by new voices the voices of men at work they ring
across the arid plain burnt by the ever-present Sun echo in the rugged
gorges cut by the waters of the river Dez through centuries and penetrate the
deep pits whose walls are covered with the etchings of time in order to harness the waters for the
irrigation of about 4.460.000 acres of arable land and to supply a valuable source of energy the Dez Project which
provides for the construction of the highest dam in the Middle and Far East
was born the plan for the hydroelectric station on the river Dez was made by the
plan organization of the Iranian government on a project furnished by the
development and resource corporation of New York which availed itself of the
collaboration of the electoral consort of milan for the design of the dam as a
result of a competition in which the world’s greatest construction companies
took part the plan organization awarded the undertaking to the impressive Girona
Lodi Johnnie group of Milan work began in December 1959 with the preliminary
tasks the laying out of the jobsite building of roads tunnels dwellings and
cable ways the great distance from supply centres the nature of the
surrounding country and the difficult living conditions made the phase of
preparation particularly arduous and important especially because of the
necessity of moving an enormous quantity of material and equipment to the site the intro to the job site and the gaud
was the first big obstacle to be overcome whilst it was relatively easy to make a
road to the edge of the plateau this was not the case with the gaud it geological
conformation and it’s wall which rise almost vertically from the river made
the only possible way down to the bottom where the dam was to be built a tunnel
six kilometers long with a section of 35 square meters which descends in helical
curves on the right side of the gorge in order to keep the jobsite free of
water the river had to be diverted through a tunnel which carried the
waters of the Dez to a point below that at which the dam was to be built whilst experts with excavators dumpers
bulldozers and rock drills stop on the job of building the dam on
the edge of the plateau a village rises quickly a village with dwellings
suitable for housing as comfortably as possible in the torrid desert climate a
community of 500 Italians who will remain there for 3 years under construction at the same time as
the dwellings and the job office are the technical and administrative offices a modern thermoelectric power station of
9,000 horsepower to produce the energy necessary for the job and for the life
of the village the mechanic shop irrationally equipped hospital ready for
all emergencies and staffed by Italian doctors a school with Italian teachers for
children from the second elementary class up to the second class of high
school and the Church of Santa Barbara all
built by the company other services for the well-being of the community were
swimming pools areas for sports and games and open-air cinema and various misses with Italian cooks
and ration which provided even in these latitudes nourishment suited to the
Italian palate excavations for the dam were begun in
September 1960 and were carried on under extremely difficult conditions reaching
the river bottom in August 1961 the laying of the foundations was then
began must work on the upper parts of the excavations was completed and more
than 700,000 cubic meters of rock were taken from the diggings The aggregates for the concrete was taken
from an alluvial deposit at the foot of the plateau 25 kilometers from the
jobsite special screening trucks had to be used
in order to eliminate material inferior to 19 mm as required by
the technical exigencies production was about 2,200 cubic meters
per day for a total of about 1 million cubic meters extracted the rabble from the excavations was
dumped in a natural fit on the plateau from which was later fed to mixes
through a man-made shaft the cement brought from 250 kilometres away arrived
in special wagons at the nearby railroad station of Andimeshk here it was
unloaded into special trailers which carried it to the silo from the silos the cement fell by
gravity to an intermediate silo from which it was then pumped to the batching
plant the rabble from the shaft reached the washing and screening town
and was then carried to the silos from where it passed through the cooling
station and went on to the batching plant the sand was produced on the plant but now let us follow the same process on
the plant itself the cement and tubes drop down about 200
meters and reaches the intermediate silo the ruble taken from the shaft is washed
and screened and divided into four sizes partially crushed and carried by the
conveyor belt to the corresponding silence a conveyor belt in a tunnel carries the
aggregate to the cooling silo where they remain in refrigerated water at two
degrees centigrade cooled by a refrigerator in a cave with a cooling
power of 4,450,000 refrigeration units per
hour the sand is produced by four rod mills
which crush the excess aggregates of various types by means of lena takes pumps the mixture
of sand and water is transferred to the centrifugal screeners and pre thickeners
and thence to the recuperator from the user conveyor belt carries the two
types of sent to their respective silence during the construction of the
plant a joint in the rock was found involving a mass of more than 25
thousand cubic meters which threatened the whole zone it was necessary to both
the rock with 550 rods more than twenty metres long and
those supporting pillars of concrete after 26 metres high having eliminated the threat of a
rockslide the production of concrete by the batching plant was begun automatic
control of the tower and the cooling system ensure that the constant and
precise proportioning of aggregates and cement with a maximum tolerance of 1%
was maintained the production of concrete was uninterrupted from october
1961 to December 1962 and reached a maximum production of more than 3000 cubic meters per day during this period the first packets
arrived at the base of the dam to begin the pouring of the foundation rocks from that date the two principal
cableways transported without a break the buckets weighing 18 tons each on the block’s the vibration of the
concrete was begun day by day with difficulty but with
ever-increasing speed that them Rises and begins to take on its characteristic
form in the meantime the portals of the
spillways on the left bank begin to take shape the excavation for the outlet of
the spillway for the first time in world history is carried on that full section
of a tunnel 15.60 meters in diameter using a jumbo rig carrying 14
rock drills and designed and built on the jobsite when the dam reached a height of 225
meters [from the sea-level] the irrigation conduits were installed the first prefabricated element in
ferro concrete weighing 19 tons for the construction of a spacious platform
for the control of the irrigation conduits is lowered into place the dam is almost at the level of the
crest the guides for the intake sluice gates
are port the spillway sluice gates are installed
inside the covering of the inclined plane of the surface outlets by means of
a mobile molding box weighing 63 tons equipped with hydraulic jacks with
transferrin radial movements and two big safety winches is going on the mouths of the spillways appear in
their finished State the Transformers weighing 96 tons each
are brought by a special trailer from the Port of Khorramshahr on the Persian
Gulf 400 kilometers away through the long tunnel they reach the
transformer area where they are installed the power station itself is housed in a
man-made cave almost as big as the main nave of Milan Cathedral and the Assembly
of the turbines and generators is in progress work on the primary substation is in the
final phases whilst on the plateau the pylons for the
high tension cables are being erected from the Transformers the energy
produced by the tamed waters of the river Dez will reach the plateau
substation by means of a line from the generators from here a network at 132 thousand
volts which covers the whole of Khuzestan through various substations will
carry the current even as far as the Persian Gulf in November 1962 the deviation tunnel
is closed and the flooding of the dam has begun work on the dam is about to reach its
close the last finishing touches are made and soon nature will come into her
own again no longer an undisputed mistress but subject to the commands of
man for the future well-being of a region as large as one-third of the
Italian peninsula on March the 14th 1963 in the presence
of the diplomatic corps accredited to Tehran his Imperial Majesty
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi officially opened the dam on the river Dez from that
moment the dam takes the name of his Majesty the Shah together with the
representatives of the fan organization and the delegates of the development and
resource corporation his Imperial Majesty was particularly careful to
express his satisfaction to the representatives of the Empresa Italiani
Alastair o Corolla, Lorry Johnny and K.G.T on the transformer area the Italian
ambassador Mario FINA Caponi and the general manager of the
associated companies Sergio Morcoorgo presented his Imperial Majesty
with a commemorative gold medal two workmen on behalf of their Italian
and Iranian colleagues offer the Shah a plaque made from a sample of the
concrete from the dam a symbol of the Brotherhood of the two peoples where there was once an arid desolate
Valley there is now a lake more than 60 kilometers long with a capacity of 3
billion cubic meters of water with beneficial effects will in time modify
even the climatic conditions of the area the dam is a thin off with a double
curve and is 203 and 1/2 meters high and is the 6th highest dam in the world and
the highest in the Middle East for the dam itself 460,000 cubic meters of concrete were used and the volume of 403,000 cubic meters of rock and rubble were excavated first the overall
quantity for all installations called for the removal of about 1 million cubic
meters of rock and rubble 100 Italian technicians and 426 workmen
together with 2000 Iranian laborers recruited from all over the
country achieved a total of 14 million man-hours on the job calm returns to the plateau and to the
walls of the gorge and men’s voices are still in a silence which is no longer there to
live but peaceful the lake lies still under the Sun witness to a new
achievement of civilization

1 thought on “Dez Project (Iran) – A Documentary on Construction of The Dez Dam

  1. خدا رحمتت کنه شاه .بخدا با دیدن فیلمهای قدیم میبینیم داغمون تازه میشه چی بودیم چی شدیم

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