Why is Krakatoa such a deadly force? It
has taken more lives than most volcanoes humans have ever encountered in the past
five thousand years of history. Only ever being surpassed by Mount Tambora. which, like
Krakatoa, is also in Indonesia. In this video series, we’re going to take a look
at Krakatoa’s violent eruptions, and the deadly sized tsunamis it has created. As
well as what makes this volcano so deadly. And when humans first started
documenting their encounter with this force to be reckoned with. So welcome to
part one. Where we’re going to cover the earliest documented eruptions all the
way up to the cataclysmic eighteen eighty three eruption. But first, Welcome To What’s The Facts. We
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Now let’s do this. Krakatoa has taken on many forms in our short history of
recording it. From a thriving, beautiful island, to a fire land devoid of any life
a few short months later, to blowing up into four different islands and becoming an
archipelago. Its history is of pure violence, and constant destruction.
Leaving it unrecognizable to passing Europeans, who were sailing the world at
that time. The name Krakatoa was first shown on Western maps in sixteen eleven. But
humanity’s documented history of this violent beast, goes way beyond that date.
Let’s take a quick look at previous records, before going into why this
volcano is so deadly. And erupts with such force, in such a short amount of
time. Four Sixteen A.D. – The Javanese Book of Kings. “A thundering sound was heard from the
mountain Batuwara”, now called to Pulosari, an extinct volcano in Bantam. The nearest
to the Sunda Strait. “Which was answered by a similar noise from Kapi”, lying
westward of the modern Bantam. Banten is the western most province in Java. So this
seems to indicate that in this book, Kapi, is Krakatoa. “A great glowing fire, which
reached the sky, came out of the last named mountain”, Kapi, “the whole world
was greatly shaken and violent thundering accompanied by heavy rain and
storms took place. But not only did not, this heavy rain extinguish the eruption
of the fire of the mountain Kapi, but augmented the fire.
The noise was fearful. At last the Mountain Kapi, with a tremendous roar, burst into
pieces, and sank into the deepest of the earth. The water of the sea rose, and
inundated the land. The country to the east of the mountain Batuwara to the
mountain Rajabasa, the most southerly volcano in Sumatra, was inundated by
the sea. The inhabitants of the northern part of the Sunda country, to the
mountain Rajabasa, were drowned and swept away, with all property. The water
subsided, but the land on which Kapi stood, became sea. And Java, and Sumatra, were
divided into two parts”. This goes to show just how far back in history Krakatoa
has left its mark, and this is only with documented records. Who really knows how
long this history has repeated itself. The global climate changes of five thirty five, to five thirty six A.D..
An eruption around this date, was believed to have been even more violent
than Krakatoa’s eighteen eighty three eruption. The second most destructive eruption, in terms of
death. And that caused the global climate changes of five thirty five to five thirty six A.D., which caused
unseasonable weather, crop failures, and famines worldwide. February sixteen eighty one. “I saw
with amazement, that the island of Krakatoa, on my first trip to Sumatra,
which was in June sixteen seventy nine, completely green and healthy with trees. Lay completely
burnt, and barren in front of our eyes. And that, at four locations, was throwing
up large chunks of fire. And when I asked a ship’s captain, when the aforementioned
island had erupted. He told me that this had happened in May sixteen eighty.
He showed me a piece of pumice as big as his fist”. February Seventeen Eighty. The crews of HMS
Resolution and HMS Discovery, after Captain James Cook’s death in Hawaii.
Stopped for a few days on Krakatoa. They found both a freshwater, and a hot water
spring on the island. They described the natives who then, lived on the island,
as friendly. And made several sketches. Those poor natives had no idea what
they’ve gotten themselves into. September Eight, Eighteen Thirty Two. U.S. Warship Peacock, anchored off
the north end of Krakatoa, and had this to say.
“Springs boiling furiously up through many fathoms of water, were found
on the eastern side of Krakatoa. The boat glided over crystal clear water, over an
extensive, and highly beautiful submarine garden. Corals of every shape and hue
were there. Some resembling sunflowers, and mushrooms. Others, cabbages from an
inch to three feet in diameter. While the third type bore a striking resemblance
to rose. The hillsides were typical of tropical climates. Large flocks of
parrots, monkeys in great variety. Wild mango, and orange groves. A superb scene
of plants and flowers of every description. Glowing in vivid tints of
purple, red, blue, brown, and green. But no freshwater, or provisions, were found. The
Eighteen Eighty Three cataclysm. Volcanic explosivity index of six, one below a super volcano.
Seismic activity around the volcano was intense in the years preceding two
disastrous Eighteen Eighty Three eruption. A series of lesser eruptions began, on May Twentieth, Eighteen Eighty Three. The volcano released huge plumes of steam and ash, lasting until late August. On the Twenty Seventh of August, that same year, a series of four huge eruptions almost
entirely destroyed the island. The explosions were so violent, that they
were heard Three Thousand One hundred and ten kilometers, one thousand nine hundred and thirty miles away, in Perth, Western Australia.
Which is absolutely mind blowing. And the island of Rodrigues, near Mauritius.
Four Thousand Eight Hundred kilometers away, or Three Thousand miles. The pressure wave, from the third and most
violent explosion. Was recorded on barographs around the world. Several
barographs recorded the wave seven times, over the course of five days. Four times
with the wave traveling away from the volcano, to its antipodal point. And three
times traveling back to the volcano.The wave rounded the globe three and a half
times. Ash was propelled to a height of eighty kilometers into the air. or Two hundred and sixty
thousand feet. The sound of the eruption was so loud, it was reported that if
anyone was within sixteen kilometers or ten miles of the volcano, they would
on deaf. The Eighteen Eighty Three eruption ejected approximately Twenty five cubic kilometers, or six
cubic miles of rock. At least thirty six thousand people died. With that number ranging up
to as high as One hundred and twenty thousand people, and many more thousands were injured. Mostly
from the tsunamis that followed the explosion. The eruption destroyed
two thirds of the island of Krakatoa. The tsunami wave was over twenty meters high or
over sixty five feet. One hundred and five villages and towns were destroyed near Krakatoa. And one hundred and thirty two were
seriously damaged. The eruption was equivalent to two hundred megatons of TNT. About
Thirteen Thousand times the nuclear yield, of the Little Boy bomb. Which was three to six
kilotons in comparison. And that devastated Hiroshima, during World War
Two. But it also surpassed the yield of the TSAR Bomba. And was four times
stronger than it. Which to this day, is the most powerful nuclear device humans
have ever detonated. At fifty megatons. Only one quarter, of what Krakatoa released on
that day. The combined effects of pyroclastic flows, volcanic ashes, and
tsunamis, had disastrous results in the region, and worldwide.There are numerous
documented reports of groups of human skeletons, floating across the Indian
Ocean. On rafts of volcanic pumice, and washing up on the East Coast of Africa.
Up to a year after the eruption, average global temperatures fell by as much as
one point two degrees Celsius, or two point two degrees Fahrenheit, in the year following
the eruption. Weather patterns continued to be chaotic for years, and temperatures
did not return to normal, until eighteen eighty eight. People have suggested that Edvard Munch’s
famous Eighteen Ninety Three painting, “The Scream”, depicts the color of the sky over Norway,
after the eruption. With it being blood red. Thanks for watching! We’ve reached the
end of part one! In our next episode tomorrow, we’re gonna go over the eighteen eighty three
event, all the way after the two thousand and eighteen eruption. And answer the question of why
Krakatoa is so powerful, and how it’s so frequent, in its cataclysmic eruptions! Hit that subscribe button for more content. Leave a comment on what
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