Krakatoa Eruption And Tsunami – Part 2 – 1883 To Present Day

In the last episode we learned of the documented
history of Krakatoa’s previous cataclysmic eruptions from Four sixteen A.D. onwards. And the potential that it was a super volcanic
eruption in Five thirty five A.D.. The link to that episode is down the description
below. Welcome to Part Two. In this episode we’re going to document Krakatos
reascension upon the surface of the Earth. All the way up to the two thousand and eighteen
eruption, and onwards. We’re also going to explain why this volcano
is so powerful. As well as what seperates it from almost every
other volcano on Earth. And why the events of Two thousand and eighteen
are destined to repeat themselves again. But first, Welcome to What’s The Facts. We release videos daily so hit that subscribe
button and turn post notifications on by clicking the bell icon so you don’t miss anything we
post! Now, let’s do this! The child of Krakatoa – Nineteen twenty seven
– Volcanic Explosivity Index of three. The recent eruption in two thousand and eighteen
was also a volcanic Explosivity index of three. Which shows the major difference between Krakatoa
just erupting, and there being a landslide. But we’ll get into that more very soon. For now, we’re going to use this as the best
comparison between the two. On Twenty Nine of December – Nineteen Twenty
Seven, a new island volcano rose above the waterline. The eruptions were initially of pumice and
ash. And that island, and the two islands that
followed. Were quickly eroded away by the sea. Eventually a fourth island, named Anak Krakatau
meaning “child of Krakatoa” in Malay and Indonesian, broke water in August Nineteen Thirty and
produced lava flows more quickly than the waves could erode them. It has returned. December Eighteen To Present Day – The Deadly
Eruption And Sunda StraitTsunami During all of the twentieth century and into
the twenty first century, up to today. Anak Krakatoa erupted consistently, and was
incredibly volcanically active. But with eruptions that were quite subtle
in nature compared to its previous ones. In the months leading up to the two thousand
and eighteen tsunami, Anak Krakatau had seen increased activity. With an eruption on twenty first of December
lasting more than two minutes and producing an ash cloud four hundred metres, or one thousand
three hundred feet high. The Next day, On the twenty second of December,
from twelve pm to six pm local time, a total of four hundred and twenty three eruptions
were recorded. The danger level of the volcano was increased
to Level two. Authorities warned people not to conduct any
activities within two kilometres or one point two miles of the volcano. A few hours later, at eleven pm local time. Anak Krakatau erupted and damaged local seismographic
equipment, though a nearby seismographic station detected continuous tremors. The eruption caused the collapse of the southwest
portion of the volcano, which triggered a tsunami. Approximately sixty four hectares or one hundred
and sixty acres of the volcano, had collapsed into the ocean. The collapse caused the height of the volcano
to be reduced. From three hundred and thirty eight meters
tall, to one hundred and ten metres or one thousand one hundred and nine feet, to three
hundred and six one feet. At least four hundred and twenty six people
were killed. And over Fourteen thousand were injured in
the ensuing tsunami. Absolutely mind blowing figures, to think
160 acres collapsed into the ocean at once. At eleven twenty seven pm, twenty four minutes
after the eruption. A tsunami was detected. There wasn’t enough time to warn people, and
it struck. Dozens of buildings were destroyed by the
wave, which hit beaches in Lampung, and Banten, three minutes later, causing untold damage
and taking people by complete surprise. Authorities have stated it may have been triggered
by an abnormal tidal surge due to a full Moon coinciding with the eruption and subsequent
landslide. The Agency initially refused to label the
event as a tsunami, claiming that it was a “normal” high tide. And that no tsunami had occurred on the coast
of Banten. Unbelievable. The tsunami struck the coast of Banten and
Lampung with a height of thirteen meters or forty three feet. Yeah, clearly a normal “high tide”. And it struck about three hundred and twelve
kilometres or one hundred and ninety four miles of coastline, surrounding the epicentre
of the eruption. Varying in height from two meters, which is
six foot seven, the height of a tall human. To five meters or sixteen feet in other places. Which is two and half times the height, of
an almost seven foot tall human. Which most humans consider a giant. Imagine if that was a huge wave about to hit
you instead. Truly terrifying. The Cost:
One hundred and fifty billion rupiah or a little over ten and a half million U.S. dollars
was estimated in just one Indonesian village alone. Two hundred and two billion rupiah was reported
from The Government of South Lampung or a little over fourteen million U.S. dollars. The damage was unbelievable. Whole towns were uplifted, and pushed inland
from the strength of the waves. Only three months prior, another tsunami had
struck Indonesia, in September two thousand and eighteen. The fishery industry of East Java has significantly
declined, with fisherman refusing to go out on boats. I don’t blame them. And the tourist industry has taken a significant
blow. With ninety percent of reservations cancelled,
due to the tsunami. Its legacy continues:
Another massive eruption occurred, four days later, on December twenty six, two thousand
and eighteen. And the sound of the eruption, was noticeably
heard, by residents in surrounding islands. Most people compare the sound of the eruption,
to a bomb blast or gas tank explosion. On December twenty seven, the status of the
volcano was raised to level three. The second highest danger level. Residents were not allowed to conduct any
activities within five kilometres or three miles of the volcano. Krakatoa isn’t through. It’s still active to the tiny extent that
we were used to, the past century prior to this eruption. And it is preparing for its next major eruption
every second that passes. Why is it so damn active? And what makes it so deadly? Krakatoa isn’t part of the Ring of fire, instead
its power comes from the collision of two tectonic plates and the shape they are in. From which unusual amounts of magma can rise. A majority of Indonesia’s one hundred and
thirty volcanoes lie along its two largest islands. Java, and Sumatra. These two islands are separated by the Sunda
Strait. Located at a bend in the axis of the island
arc. Krakatau is directly above the subduction
zone of the Eurasian Plate, and the Indo-Australian Plate. Where the plate boundaries make a sharp change
of direction. Which results in an unusually weak crust in
the region where Krakatoa sits above. This sharp change is everything, and is what
sets it apart. One thing is for certain, Krakatoa is here
to stay. And isn’t disappearing anytime soon until
major changes, in tectonics occur, millions of years into the future. It is destined to live alongside humanity
in the distant future, and it will repeat what it already has, so many times in human
history. From two thousand and eighteen, all the way
to the four hundred and sixteen A.D. record of it, and most likely for thousands upon
thousands of years before that record. It is following a cycle. Landslide, destruction, rebuilding itself,
and repeat. It is for this reason it is so powerful. The explosions are disastrous. But it’s ability to build land as high as
four hundred meters or thirteen hundred feet above sea level, in under one hundred years,
due to this crustal weakness. Only to explode, and cause a landslide producing
a ridiculously powerful tsunami. Is where it gets its power. It’s unique position of being seaside, the
extent of lava accumulation, and the production of tsunamis from landslides, sets it apart
from almost every other volcano we know. With the frequency of it being one of the
main factors for that. It’s one thing for an eruption to occur on
a mainland, but another to have to deal with two significant and power natural disasters
occurring in unison. And so, it waits. Rebuilding its strength. To release its power once more, one day. To continue its vicious cycle. I only hope that next time, humans are more
technologically resilient, to be able to mitigate the damage. Or else a repeat of not only two thousand
and eighteen, but of eighteen eighty three, could happen. Two thousand and eighteen was weaker than
the eighteen eighty three eruption, by at least half. If another eighteen eighty three scale event
occurs, with a volcanic explosivity index of six, rather than three like what we saw
in two thousand eight, the death toll could be in the millions or tens of millions. But even more than that. If an eruption like what occurred in five
thirty five A.D., happened in modern times, which researchers have estimated to have been
stronger, than Krakatoa’s eighteen eighty three eruption. It could be on the scale of a super volcano. Which starts at the volcanic explosivity index
of seven. The eighteen eighty three eruption was a volcanic
explosivity index of six. Which anyone who’s watched the other video
I’ve created, knows how destructive that is. Now imagine what kind of tsunami a super volcano
would create. So, to conclude, at one point in time, Krakatoa
may have very well erupted in the same fashion as a super volcano. Meaning it, could, at times in history, be
labelled as one. With the possibility, that in the future,
it could repeat this scale of an eruption, and earn that title again. So this is the story so far. Until the day that Krakatoa, decides it’s
ready to continue its legacy, once more. Thanks for watching, hit that subscribe button
for more content! Would you ever visit Krakatoa, after this
recent eruption? Leave a comment on what volcano or natural
disaster you want us to cover, and we’ll make it into a video. I’ve read about Krakatoa many times in my
life, always in awe. Scarily I read over it again, two days prior
to the two thousand and eighteen eruption. I couldn’t believe my eyes when I woke up
and saw the news that it had erupted. Hit that like button if you enjoyed this video! Share it around and let’s hit one thousand
subs! One thing I just wanted to quickly mention
to my subscribers, and to the people who have seen this, is I’ll most likely be making these
two parts into one video. So if you are subscribed with notifications
on, I just wanted to let you know that. So that you are aware when I upload it, if
you’ve already watched it. But don’t worry! I’ve got plenty of juicy, destructive videos
that I’m going to be making every day. So, I’ll see you all tomorrow with another
cataclysmic video!

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