Living with Earthquakes in Hawaii


– [Brian] Thanks for coming today. I’m really happy to see all of you. I’m glad that the turnout is so good on this lovely afternoon. Thanks for taking some
time out of your day to be here to talk about earthquakes. And of course, this is in honor
of Volcano Awareness Month, which we have every January. And so, this is just one
of a series of talks, as well as other programs that are going on throughout the month. At the end, I’ll share a few
of the upcoming ones with you. The purpose of the talk today is just to discuss earthquakes here in Hawaii. Why do they happen? Where do they happen? What can you do about it? I’ll give you a preview
of some of our analyses from the 2018 eruption
earthquakes, as well, and a little bit about
what we do in the USGS. If you have questions,
or if I say any terms that you don’t know, just raise your hand, let me know anytime. It’s fine to interrupt me. And we’ll also have
plenty of time at the end to ask more in-depth questions, too. A little about myself first. My name’s Brian Shiro. I’ve been with the Hawaiian
Volcano Observatory now almost four years, where I coordinate the
seismic group there. We monitor the earthquakes
here on the island. Prior to that, I spent almost 11 years at the Pacific Tsunami
Warning Center on O’ahu, where I was involved with
monitoring earthquakes and tsunamis around the world. I’ve managed seismic
networks in different places, including Fiji, and Tonga, and Antarctica, Mariana’s, Canada, as
well as here in Hawaii. The art and science of
monitoring earthquakes is something that I find enjoyable. If you have questions about that, we’ll touch on it here,
but just a little bit. Okay, so earthquakes in Hawaii. Hawaii has thousands of
earthquakes every year. In fact, on any given day,
you may have hundreds. Here’s an example of a station on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea, which recorded, as you can see, each one of these blips on
the graph is an earthquake. This was actually on May 2nd, 2018, in the lead-up to the eruption, which happened the next
day in Leilani Estates. And of course, in this
example, this is highlighting the importance of monitoring earthquakes to forecast volcanic eruptions, and to help keep people
safe from volcanic hazards. This and other stations like it were used to track the earthquakes
going down the rift zone as they traveled from
the area of Pu’u ‘O’o down to Leilani Estates, where
the lava eventually came out. I thought I’d start off with grounding you where we are right now today. This is actually a snapshot of
earthquakes in the past week. If you wanna know what’s going on, you can also check out our website anytime and you’ll see a different
representation of this. But what you can see here is the island, and the circles are earthquakes, and the color is how deep it is, that the more blue or
purple, the deeper it is. One thing that you can notice too, is if you took a big knife
and sliced it like a cake, there’s two cross-sections
here, one going east to west, which is as if you had sliced it and are looking toward the north, and the other one is a
cross-section going north-south, as if you sliced it and were
looking towards the west. So, that’s what this is showing you. You can see the earthquakes
don’t just happen everywhere. They have a certain geographic pattern. They are mostly on the
southern part of the island, they’re mostly around
the active volcanoes, and they’re mostly shallow,
with this exception here, this cluster that occurs around Pahala. We can advance that to
show the last month. And if you’re paying attention,
you notice that the top, there were 400 earthquakes last week. This is magnitude one and greater. And here’s the last month, 1,600 magnitude one and
greater earthquakes. Now you can see, it’s starting to have more scattered earthquakes
in the northern part of the island and in the
west side of the island, where we are. These earthquakes occur
for different reasons. We’ll get into that in just a minute. But you could still see
the same general pattern, most of it happening in the south, most of it shallow, with the
exception here of Pahala. And in the last year, 10,000 earthquakes. The longer you go, the more you’re gonna cover up the island with dots. Everybody has probably
felt an earthquake, right? Can you raise your hand
if you’ve felt one? Yeah, almost everyone,
I’m sure, living here. We know it’s earthquake country. Earthquakes happen all the time. This video is three minutes long and it gives you an overview of the different types of earthquakes, there are three types, there’s gonna be a quiz, how about that. This video, by the way,
you can find online. It’s produced by an
organization called IRIS, with cooperation from us. If you slice the volcano in two, you can see a cartoon view
of the magma coming up. The first type of
earthquake that happens here is related to the volcanoes directly, related to magma and
gases moving underground. As the lava, or excuse me, as the magma forces its
way through these conduits, it breaks the rock, and
anytime the rock breaks, you have an earthquake. Here’s an example where the magma just made its way up here and erupted. These other lines here represent faults along the flank of the volcano. If you’ve been to the park
and driven down Hilina Pali, you know those big faults,
here’s a zoom in on that, that is slipping all the time, and as it slips, each time it
does, that’s as an earthquake. Those are tectonic kind of earthquakes, that’s the second type of
earthquake we have here, just along faults, not
due to magma or the gas. It’s due to settling of the island. That’s the most numerous
type of earthquake in Hawaii, happens the most commonly, and it’s the most dangerous, potentially. If this lower section goes. This red line here is the boundary between the volcanic material above that rests on the older ocean floor below. They’re made of different types of rock and the two slide along
each other pretty easily. When this gets pushed, or when this moves, like happened in the
magnitude 6.9 earthquake on May 4, 2018, this could produce very big earthquakes, which we’ll talk about a little bit more, including the 7.7 in 1975. Now the third kind of
earthquake happens deeper down. These are the earthquakes
that are more common around here as well as Pahala
and other areas of the island away from the active volcanoes. These are due to the bending of the plate beneath the weight of the island. If you imagine all this volcanic material from all the volcanoes piling up on top of the Pacific
plate over many years, it pushes down and it bends that plate. That produces stresses, and occasionally it causes the rock to break and make earthquakes. We call those flexural earthquakes, or in this video, they’re
called mantle earthquakes. Those are the most common
type of earthquakes up the chain as well, including
these ones noted here, Lana’i, Maui, Molokai, et cetera, some of which have been quite damaging. So, the three types are the volcanic, the tectonic, and the flexural. We’ll talk about hazards in just a minute. This is an older map, but this is showing the
hazard’s high on the Big Island. Which we know. So this island, “Earthquakes
in Hawaii” is available online, and we’ll link to it once this gets posted on HVO’s website later. Okay, let’s see if I can get this to work. There we go. Remember the quiz I told you about? Let’s try this. Who remembers one of the types? – Volcanic.
– Volcanic, all right. – Tectonic.
– Got it. – Mantle.
– Mantle, okay. The flexural, right, the bendy. So there’s the volcanic,
here’s a little cartoon. This is showing, imagine a little finger of magma underground, moving
along, they call that a dike. As it’s forcing its
way into little cracks, it’s making them bigger, widening them, and creating earthquakes as it goes. Usually, the very tip of that dike, you get what’s called a high-frequency type of sharp earthquake. Behind it, once the conduit is open, you get this resonance that
happens when magma degasses that just reverberates inside the pipe. That’s often called tremor. The second type,
tectonic, as someone said, could occur on small faults or this really big fault
beneath the island. It has happened, and is
the most numerous type. Then the flexural, or the
mantle, as the video called it, are the ones that occur deeper down. They’re due to the bending, and, in fact, it’s not only bending under the island, it could be bending away
from the island, too, all the way out to O’ahu. That’s why we have earthquakes here, that’s what causes them. Even though we’re not on a plate boundary, like California is, we
have a lot of earthquakes. In fact, in the U.S., we have the third-highest rate
of seismicity in the country due to these three processes. That gets us to earthquake hazards. What do we do about that? This map shows earthquakes
magnitude three and higher that have happened in the past decade, just the last 10 years. You can see they are
mostly on the Big Island. The biggest ones are on the south. The size of the circle is the
magnitude of the earthquake. They’re scattered up the island chain, and now you know why, because of the bending
of the plate up there. Why three and higher magnitudes? Because that’s generally
what you might feel. Do you guys feel many earthquakes smaller than a magnitude three? Maybe, if it’s nearby, but generally, it needs to be about that
big to feel it widely. Of these, some of them
are larger and damaging. This is showing magnitude
six and greater earthquakes since 1868, which predates
instrumentation in seismology, but we have ways to figure out magnitudes for older earthquakes. You can see a number of
large, damaging earthquakes, all these caused various
amounts of damage. In fact, by taking data like that, scientists have figured
out the probability of the next damaging earthquake. Generally speaking, we have a damaging, if you define that as 6.5
or greater earthquake, every 10 years or so. We just had one in 2018, that 6.9, but who knows the prior one before that? (audience member speaking off-camera) Kiholo Bay, right? – In 2006.
– 2006, exactly. So, 2006, 2018, it’s roughly that much. But you can see that the
probability gets higher and higher the longer you wait. In fact, remember I
mentioned our relative risk compared to other places in the U.S. Here’s a map of the country. You can see the red color
along the west coast, Alaska, southern Hawaii,
as well as Puerto Rico. Those are the areas with the
highest hazard for earthquake. When these big earthquakes
happen, they rupture a fault. A fault is the place underground where the rocks slip
to make the earthquake. If you’ve ever bent or broke a pencil, you know the phenomenon of
bending it a little bit, and it won’t break. It just bends and it goes
back to where it started. That’s what’s happening
in the earth all the time, there’s a little bit of stress bending the rock a little
bit, but it doesn’t break. But if it bends it long enough, and pushes persistently enough, eventually the rock can’t sustain
that anymore and it snaps. That’s a brittle process
and that’s what happens in the earth, as well. And of course when it happens,
it happens along a surface, we call it a fault. In the case of the pencil,
the width of the pencil. So what this is showing is the bulk areas of some of the largest earthquakes that have affected the island here. A lot of them are just rectangles because we’re roughly guessing, based on the energy released, how big the fault would have
to be to produce that energy. In the case of the 1868 earthquake, which is this odd shape here, we think it ruptured this
whole section of the island, which is almost the whole
south flank of the volcano. Based on that, seismologists
think the largest earthquake that could happen in Hawaii
is about a magnitude eight. That was a 7.9 earthquake, and was almost the whole south flank. Just a little bit more rupture
maybe to get up to an eight, but not any more. That’s just due to the physical
geometry of the island, how big it is. Again, in the video, remember
the red line in the video showing that surface
between that big fault between the upper material that’s younger and older material below? This is that area. I’m gonna go through a few examples of these historic events
just to give you a feel for what they were like. The 1868 earthquake, the
great Ka’u earthquake, the one that I mentioned, is showing here. This is a Shakemap, which
is a depiction of intensity away from the earthquake. The earthquake happened down here, and the intensity is how
much ground shaking you get going away from the earthquake. It’s measured with these Roman numerals. Traditionally, it was
qualitative based on reports that people did about what
it was like, what fell down, what kind of damage there was. Today, we augment that
with actual measurements of deceleration of the ground swell. You can see it rattled
all the way to O’ahu. In fact, there were
reports on Kauai, as well. Here’s a picture of a
church that was destroyed. Certainly, this is the biggest earthquake that has been recorded in Hawaii. This one was also notable ’cause
it created a local tsunami. The tsunami, unfortunately,
killed a number of people, as well as some landslides, so it’s also the deadliest earthquake that we’ve had in modern times
as well, or recent times. Also notable for this earthquake, it’s the only time it’s been documented that it induced an eruption. So, the eruptions at Kilauea and Mauna Loa were affected by the earthquake. It’s pretty interesting that there is interplay that happened between them. Since this is a Kona audience, I thought I’d talk about
the 1951 earthquake. This was actually the biggest earthquake since the Ka’u earthquake. The 1868 earthquake happened,
and then the next biggest one was the 1951 one, here in South Kona. This one was quite severe. It also produced a really
small local tsunami that was not damaging. There were no fatalities
recorded for this, but it was damaging. You can see here, a
picture of a water tank that was destroyed nearby. The 1975 earthquake. Who was around and felt that earthquake? The one that happened in 2018
that we just had was in almost the exact same place, almost
a repeat of that earthquake, just not quite as big. You can see some photos here,
things thrown on the floor in a store in Hilo, cracks
in the National Park, and the tsunami that it
produced destroying a house, in this case. That tsunami was famous, too,
for killing two Boy Scouts who were camping in the National Park. Finally, the 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake, as well as the Mahukona earthquake. This is interesting because
they were twin earthquakes that occurred, not from
movement along that fault at the base of the island, but this is due to that
third type of earthquake on the video, the flexure
or bending earthquakes. On this little diagram
below, you can see that, it’s showing that the Kiholo
Bay, the first earthquake, was actually in this
lower part of the plate that was bent down and had this stress that’s pushing it more outward. Then the second earthquake,
the Mahukona earthquake, was in the upper part,
which had the stress that’s pushing inward on it. We can tell that from the seismic
waves that came from them. We can tell which way the fault moved, whether it was pressure or extension. It was just a textbook example of that. Basically, the first earthquake triggered the second earthquake. They were pretty close together in time. Who felt that earthquake? Most of you here. I was on O’ahu and actually didn’t feel it ’cause I was running. But I saw a tree fall down on
O’ahu from that earthquake. We have a lot of earthquakes in Hawaii, including a history of
damaging earthquakes. If you look at the magnitudes
and energy releases of these earthquakes, they’re
on par with the biggest ones in the country, including the
1906 San Francisco earthquake, for example, which was
devastating for that city, as well as Loma Prieta and Northridge, famous earthquakes in California. Hawaii’s earthquakes are just as big. The hazard here is equivalent to that. What’s different is the
population, a lot lower population, a lot less infrastructure. So, there’s less
vulnerability, if you will, but just as much
probability of the hazard. Kilauea eruption 2018 was
remarkable in many, many ways. Most notably, of course, the
volume of lava that came out. This is fissure eight
and its lava channel, which fed a very vigorous eruption, covering so many homes and
creating 800-something acres of new land to the island. Associated with that were
a lot of earthquakes, although not associated
with this process itself. Most of the earthquakes were earlier on, due to the creation of that
magma pathway in the ground that I showed in cartoon
form, and also at the summit, which we’ll talk about. If you break down the earthquakes, this is just a map of
earthquakes during the eruption, magnitude 2.7 and higher. I like to break it down
to three main types, three main categories. There’s the ones that occur
in the lower East Rift Zone and associated with that eruption. There’s the ones at the
summit, at the caldera, associated with the
collapse of the caldera. Has anybody gone and
seen that in the Park? It’s very different. And the south flank. All these south flank ones are associated with the magnitude 6.9
earthquake and its aftershocks. They have distinct
characteristics about them. If you wanna hear more about this, I have an After Dark in the Park talk in the National Park
at the end of the month where I’ll delve into this more. If you look at these colors here, it shows the amount of
earthquakes over time, if you can read over the date. This is starting in January of ’18. In May, everything takes off. By August, it shuts off. So, May to August, those three months, is when it was active. If you look here at the red ones first, they pick up for only three weeks, was the area down here was really active. For three weeks, when all
those fissures were forming, covering up those homes,
creating new lava flows, that’s when all the earthquakes happened. But once that was established, once fissure eight took
dominance of the system, notice how those earthquakes
just dropped off, and just tailed off to a low level. It was pretty interesting. Only 1,500 of those recorded
at this magnitude level. The south flank is another story. The magnitude 6.9 earthquake happens, takes it longer to die
down, lots of aftershocks, which are still going to this day. Notice how it’s not quite going back down to the level it was before. That’s another interesting observation. This is basically showing
that the south flank of the volcano, Kilauea, and
we can measure this with GPS, is more mobile now than it
was before the eruption. It’s actually more free to
move, and in the process, sometimes creates these
smaller earthquakes, than it was prior to the eruption. Finally, the big story
seismically was the summit. We’ll talk about this in the next slide. But notice how the blue
color here did not pick up at the beginning. Slightly, but it didn’t really start until about a month into it,
then it started to pick up. Once enough magma had drained
away beneath the summit, that’s when the caldera
started to collapse. That’s when all these earthquakes really started to take off. The 6.9 earthquake was large, the biggest in more than 40 years, and had very severe shaking. I remember diving under my desk. It was a really exciting day, and it certainly made the news. Here’s a Tribune-Herald article about it, talking about some of the effects. But it didn’t make a big
splash, for obvious reasons, because the eruption
began just the day before. People were evacuating their homes, there was lava on the ground. It’s a triage situation,
in a certain sense, so the public’s attention did
not dwell on this very long. But it’s definitely a
very major earthquake in the grand scheme of things for Hawaii. It’s hard to see here, this
is a figure from a paper that came out in “Science” last year. It’s showing how the magma underground actually pressed sideways
on the flank of the volcano. That’s what caused this
fault to give, we think. It might have been ready to go anyway, but this is the push it needed. I promised to talk about
the summit earthquakes a little bit. This was one of the more
surprising, or novel, things about the eruption
from an earthquake standpoint. No one had ever observed this
incremental caldera collapse in such great detail. The Hawaiian Volcano
Observatory has a really dense seismic network of monitoring
stations around the summit where we could record all
these earthquakes very well. You can see here, these blue lines are the number of earthquakes per hour throughout that period of the eruption, throughout these three
months of the eruption. And you can see, sometimes
you’d have as much as 150 earthquakes an hour
happening in this region. But notice how it would
rise high, to a peak. That’s when, basically,
this roof of the caldera is wiggling, as the magma is drained away, it’s not supported very well. It’s wiggling a little bit,
creating all these earthquakes. It can’t hold itself up
any longer and falls. Falls down several meters,
10 feet, something like that. Then everything goes quiet. It’s happy again, it’s stable,
it’s on more solid ground. That’s when this rate drops off until, the magma is still draining away, it’s not supported as well
and starts to wiggle again, starts to create the earthquakes, rises back up to the rate of earthquakes, until it falls again,
this happened 62 times. Each one of these measured
about a magnitude five energy release, a
5-point-something, on average. Very remarkable. This is a time-lapse video of the caldera, showing from April through
August what was going on. That’s one photo per day, I believe. We’ll watch it one more time
to see what it was like before. You see the explosions
happening with all the gas and ash early on. Then it just falls in on itself. The crater increased in
volume by about 15 times, by depth by about six times,
by width by three times. If you have not seen it, go see it. How unusual was the seismicity
in the summer of ’18? This is one way to look at it. This is showing 20 years
of earthquake counts from our catalog. I asked my earthquake catalog, “How many earthquakes
are happening per month?” That’s what these blue lines are. You can hardly see here,
but normally we have a few hundred earthquakes, up to maybe 1,000 earthquakes a month. Remember the plot in the
beginning of this talk, when I showed the last
month of earthquakes, it was 1,600, I think. Then, here is the summer of ’18. This is how unusual it was. We got about three years’
worth of earthquakes in three months. We haven’t looked at all of them, it’s gonna take us years to
look at all those earthquakes and analyze them. You can see, though, notice how now, over the past year and a
half, we’re at a higher level of seismicity, in terms
of number of earthquakes, than we were before the eruption. So, the volcano, the
island, is still adjusting, still creating a lot of
earthquakes, relatively speaking. How do we monitor these earthquakes? At HVO, we have a number
of ways we monitor the volcanic activity. My piece of it is just one of many. My piece is monitoring the earthquakes, but we have other scientists
who monitor other things. By taking all these types
of data into account, we have a good picture of
what the volcano is doing. This includes the shape of the
volcano, how it’s inflating. It includes the gases that are coming out. It even includes the sounds
that it makes, et cetera. Increasingly, we’re using
satellites and drones more, to monitor from the air and space. This is just one piece of the picture. But from the seismic side, I broke it down into about four or five steps. First, you have to record the earthquakes on your instruments, your seismometers. You have to get the data back, and have to be able to use it. Then, you analyze the data
so you can learn about it, what’s going on, and you
tell people about it. Then, of course, do something about it, if it’s a drop, cover, and hold. This map shows where our stations are. All the red triangles are the locations of a majority of our sites and stations. There’s about 100 sites on the island. You can see they’re
concentrated on Kilauea, as well as Mauna Loa, but
they’re scattered around as well. This is what I take care of, and this is what we use to
monitor the earthquakes. This has changed a lot over time. Thomas Jaggar, who founded the
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, the museum is famously named after him, was one of the people at
the forefront of seismology back in the early part of the 1900s, developing the instruments
for the first time. There’s a photo of him
in the Whitney Vault, which is behind the Volcano
House in the National Park, developing some of the very
first seismometers ever made. Here is an example of
what one of our stations looks like today, up on the
summit of Mauna Loa in the snow, with solar panels and
ethernet radios and batteries. Very modern telecommunications
infrastructure at all our stations. The instruments are all
digital and computer-based. Speaking of telemetry,
the next cog in our wheel is getting the data back. HVO operates its own private
area network, if you will. It’s like a cell network
that’s just for our data. It uses radios, microwave range radios. This is what one of the
telemetry hubs looks like. Our data is shooting around the island, getting collected at places like this, and then comes back to the
observatory where we analyze it. How do we analyze it? Well, we have to triangulate
where the earthquake occurred. We have a team of
seismologists whose main job is to look at all the data
streams coming in every day, to verify that the computer
has found the arrival times of the earthquakes properly. Then adjust this, as necessary, the time the earthquake occurred. If you wanna know the
details, at least roughly, here here’s how it works. You wanna find when the
P-wave, the first wave, arrives at a station. When did the shaking begin at the station? We can measure that, and that’s a time. If we multiply a time by a velocity, which is the speed that
sound travels in rock, you can measure that lag. You can knock on a rock and
listen on the other side, and you can figure out
the velocity that it took that wave to travel through that medium. Scientists have done that, so we know the velocity of the rock. If you multiply those, you get distance. Same phenomena as if
you’re driving your car and trying to figure out
how long it’s gonna take you to get somewhere. You know your speed,
how much time you have, how far can you get, do you
wanna get gas, et cetera. That’s the basic idea. These distances are circles. They become the radius of
how far away an earthquake could have been from that station. If you do that at enough stations, where the circles overlap
is your earthquake. So, in principle, this is
how we locate earthquakes. The computers help a lot. The computers do the number crunching, and we just provide the
eyes and the expertise to see when this happened. And of course, the last step
is getting the word out. This goes to the website. You can subscribe to something called Earthquake Notification Service. Who gets that on your phones? You do? If you haven’t heard of it,
you can go to the USGS website, look for Earthquake
Notification Service, or ENS. That’s the link. You can set up how to
get it on your phone. You’ll be one of the first to know. As well as the HVO website, there’s also earthquakes on the website. Now the final step, at
least two people may know, is what about the response step? That’s what this section is about. What do you do with that information? If it’s a small, magnitude two earthquake, you don’t need to do anything. But what if it’s a bigger one? As we know, it’s not if but when the next big earthquake’s gonna happen. We know every roughly 10
years there’s gonna be a damaging earthquake here. Here are some of them we talked about, as well as models that we talked about. The main thing is drop, cover and hold on. If the earthquake is so strong
you have trouble standing up, that’s your cue to drop down
’cause you might fall down. You’d rather get down yourself than fall down and get hurt, right? So, dropping down is really important. Get on your knees, get on the
ground, however you want to, however you can. Ideally, cover up. Get under a table, under a
desk, or something like that, so that if the roof starts to fall, especially things like
these ceiling tiles, anything like that that’s
weak and could fall down, you don’t want it to hit you on the head. So, have a shield over yourself. That’s why you cover up. The reason you hold on
is because the shaking can be violent enough that
the table you’re under might tip over or it might
shake its way out from over you. It might shake its way sideways, and then you wouldn’t be under it anymore. So, just hold it over yourself. This’ll be tens of seconds
and then it will be done. Once it’s happened, once
it’s all done, you can go. Usually we say go outside because
there could be aftershocks and weakened material could
fall down, if it didn’t already. Drop, cover and hold on. Of course, if you’re at the
beach get away from the water. If it’s one of these
earthquakes that’s strong enough you can’t stand, well,
it may be strong enough to make a local tsunami. Just get away from the water. Walk about quarter mile,
walk for 10, 20 minutes, if you wanna be extra
safe, you’ll be okay. There’s more information, yes? – [Man] What would be the
time that it could generate a local tsunami? Let’s say from a six. – [Brian] The tsunami itself
will be generated right away. The speed of the tsunami is dependent on the depth of the water,
so the deeper the water, the faster it travels. So, when it occurs close
to shore in shallow water, the speed is somewhat slower,
which buys you some time. If the earthquake occurs on
the south flank of Kilauea, the tsunami would actually
have to wrap around the island to get here, which could
take about 15 minutes, 10 or 15 minutes, depending
on at what depth it occurred away from the coast. If the earthquake were a South Kona or southwest flanking
Mauna Loa earthquake, on this side of the volcano,
you might have as little as five minutes before it would reach you. That gives you a rough idea. Folks on O’ahu would have about 30 to 35 or 40 minutes, around there. There’s a pamphlet in the back called “Earthquakes in
Hawaii” right there, that you’re all welcome
to take home with you. Of course, you can learn
a lot more on our website. The Great Hawaii ShakeOut website, if you’ve not heard of
this, go check it out. There’s a lot of material
there on preparedness, on safety, on different scenarios,
what if you’re disabled, what if you’re at a school,
what if it’s in an office? A lot of what-if scenarios are there, and there’s good materials to review for all sorts of situations. The Great Hawaii ShakeOut
coordinates the world’s largest earthquake drills every October. You and your business, organization, can sign up to be counted
in the earthquake drills with tens of millions of people nationwide participating every October
just to get practice of drop, cover and hold on. The other thing I wanted
to remind everyone today is to please submit did
you feel it reports. Who knows what did you feel it is? I see a few hands, a few knows, okay. It’s a service on the USGS website. You can go to earthquake.usgs.gov/dyfi/
for did you feel it? If you feel an earthquake,
it asks a question, “Did you feel it?” And you say “Yes,” or “No.” If you want to, you can answer a few additional questions
that say, “Did things fall “off the walls, did it form cracks?” And some additional questions
if you want to answer those. It helps to make maps like this that show the amount of shaking. We can’t have seismometers everywhere. Remember my map of the red triangles of where we have instruments. They’re not everywhere, but
there’s a lot more people, so you guys can be little seismometers, filling in the gaps on our maps. It’s really valuable to
us to help us do that. Thank you very much for your time. If you have questions, let me know. Anything, I’ll be here
for about 15 more minutes if you have questions, thank you. (audience applauds)

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