[MUSIC]. In this section, we will look at the
traditional lighting instruments that are used to create a lighting design for the
theater. When we look at the lighting instruments
for theater lighting, we are look at very intense and sophisticated pieces of
equipment. Unlike the light bulbs and lamps in our
homes, lighting instruments use lamps that often burn intensely.
And as a result, have a limited life. In the theater, there are two basic
categories of lighting instruments at a designers disposal.
Those are referred to as spot lights and flood lights.
Spotlights are so called, because their beam results in a well defined spot, or
circle on the stage. Spotlights are used primarily for
purposes of defining an area on the stage.
Typically, 2 or more spotlights will be focused into an area.
And those spots will be blended with other spots to create several areas
blended together to create what is referred to as a stage wash.
The manner of spot that a spot light creates is determined by the lens that it
utilizes. The two most common spot lights for the
theater are the Ellipsoidal spot light and The Fresnel spot light.
The Ellipsoidal spot light, or Lekolite, as it’s sometimes referred, creates a
sharp spot on the stage. The Ellipsoidal does this by means of a
double convex lens. In the barrel of an Ellipsoidal spot
light, 2 lenses with a convex configuration intensify the light beam
and create a sharp spot. At the rear of the ellipsoidal, a quartz
lamp generates the initial light and reflects off a domed reflector toward the
double lens arrangement. When the light hits the initial lens, the
convex configuration forces the beam to cross inside the barrel.
And when it strikes the second lens, a very intense and sharp spot is created.
The Fresnel spotlight utilizes a single uniquely designed lens to create its
spot. The Fresnel is named for the French
physicist who invented the instruments lens which was initially used in
lighthouses. This instrument creates a soft spot that
can be resized through the focusing process.
This soft spot is created through the use of the Fresnel’s stepped lens.
The Fresnel can be used as specialty soft creating a soft spot on a featured
player. Its soft spot also makes it ideal for
filling in areas left unlit by the general lighting of the stage.
Apart from the spotlight are a category of lighting instruments known as flood
lights. These flood lights typically use a lamp
and a reflector to create a flood of light.
Because they don’t use a lens, they flood an area with light rather then creating a
defined spot. Flood lights are often used to introduce
color into an area of the stage or on the surface of a sky cyc.
2 typical floodlights in the theater are the Scoop and the PAR Can.
The scoop is so called because of its shape.
The lamp of the scoop instrument sits inside a large scoop-like reflector.
As you can tell, the scoop requires a large gel and can flood an ample amount
of color into an area. Another common floodlight is referred to
as the PAR Can. The PAR Can is a flood light that has a
built in reflector in the lamp itself. The PAR Can instrument itself serves no
other purpose then to house this reflector within a lamp.
As a result, it is little more then a can with this specialized lamp.
PAR stands for Parabolic Reflector. This is in reference to the shape of the
reflector within the lamp itself. The Parabolic Reflector is the same kind
of lamp that is used in your car’s headlights.
There are other types of floodlights including strip lights and cyc lights.
these are designed to flood a particular color onto a cyclorama.
[MUSIC] From this discussion, we learn that designing lights for a play
production requires knowledge of the different types of lighting instruments
available. And a technical acuum of what the
purposes of these instruments are capable of serving.
In the next section, we will take a look at the process that a lighting designer
goes through in order to design and execute a technically efficient, and
aesthetically pleasing lighting design for a play production.
Now, it’s time for your task for this section.
See you on the other side. [MUSIC].