UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! (Response to MinutePhysics)

Hi this is Emily from MinuteEarth. A little while back, Henry made this great
MinutePhysics video about how the weird symmetry of light and shadows on a landscape can make
it really hard for your brain to tell which features are popping out and which ones are
dented in, especially if you’re not sure where the light is coming from. This re-ignited an old debate we had here
at MinuteEarth, about THIS photo of the surface of Mars. That sinuous pattern on the landscape is an
ancient stream channel – which is cool because it means that liquid water used to flow on
Mars – but that crater above it has a shadow in the top left, which means the light in
the image must be coming from the top left, which seems to suggest that the stream channel
is actually sticking up above the surrounding landscape. But…that can’t be right, right? I mean, river channels should obviously be
valleys, since they’ve been carved into the ground. This seemed like such a basic fact to me that,
even when everyone else on my team said they saw this as a ridge, my brain kept telling
me it was a valley. It turns out that, not only was my brain lying,
but this stream channel is an example of a weird geological process that essentially
turns landscapes inside out, creating inverted relief. If you live in a cold climate, you may have
actually seen something like this happen with compacted footprints in the snow – as the
sun melts the fluffier snow around them, they can end up sticking out, like this. The same thing can happen to a river valley. For instance, say you’ve got a stream running
through a desert. Sometimes there is so little rain that the
stream dries up. As it does, some groundwater is actually drawn
upward by capillary action, and as it rises and evaporates, dissolved minerals in it are
left behind and precipitate out, coating the sediments in the riverbed and cementing them
together. As the stream flows and dries up over and
over again, more and more cement accumulates, making the riverbed harder and more resistant
to erosion than the surrounding rock. Over the eons, wind erodes that softer rock,
turning the channel into an inverted version of its former self. We can’t know exactly how this Martian riverbed
got turned inside out without getting down on the ground and digging around a little,
but we can make some good guesses by studying inverted relief on our home planet. You can even find your own examples on Google
Earth; just be warned that trying to figure out what’s rightside-up and upside-down
could turn your brain inside-out. Hi, this is Ever and I illustrated this video. Lots of you have asked how I create animated
effects like this one. It’s not magic; in fact, it’s pretty easy
to do if you’ve got the right tools – and the right teacher. I was never one for formal school, but the
online classes from experts at Skillshare are perfect if you’re a self-directed learner
like me. You can try out skillshare’s impressive
library of 17,000 how-to classes on everything from video editing to T-shirt design. The first 200 people to click the link in
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100 thoughts on “UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! (Response to MinutePhysics)

  1. I thought this had to do with flat-earthers (flat-mars-ers?) saying that water would fall off a globe.

  2. Uh now I see.. Its took me some time to "inverse" my brain… now i clearly see this landscape is full of reliefs, and very sharp bumps! Wow!

  3. If we had enough water, could we refill Mars oceans and rivers with water without them drying out?

  4. The strange thing is that rivers don't naturally bend so much and prefer to take shortcuts. This is explained in more detail by Numberphile where there is a mathematical way rivers actually flow.

  5. My theory: As Mars cooled down the iron core solidified and stopped spinning, this caused the magnetic field around Mars to collapse. Without the field solar winds from the sun were free to plummet Mars with wind and radiation. That wind swept away Mars' landscape turning it into a frozen desert with inverted riverbeds.

    How'd I do?

  6. Wait, this isn't a video talking about how does your mind world based on five emotions…

  7. This is whats great about science, It either confuses me or fascinates me.

  8. 0:56 ''My brain kept telling me…Not only was my brain lying…''

    The morale: When you're wrong, blame your brain.


  9. I've lived in Québec, Canada for fifteen years and I've never seen anything like this. I'm amazed at this

  10. I don't know what it is about Emily, maybe it's her voice, but I really like her as a narrator.

  11. So, is that the answer of limestone that formed by cora froml under sea can become a limestone mountain?


  13. Could you also talk about a similar phenomenon called eskers, inverted rivers left by glacial retreat?

  14. is that dustin from stranger things in the thumbnail!?

  15. Wait a second. The guy at the end of the video said he was muggle, but his last name is Salazar! 😱

  16. …Ever…that image….i've seen that before….Wait a second!….UnPuntoCircular! Sure!You're alive!…. But it seems i'm a little bit late

  17. for a second there your title made me think minute physics and minute earth were completely different people

  18. minute earth is amazing!!! thanks emily and all team members for doing promoting science in this way!!!

  19. Me: He's a Muggle?!?!.
    Magic in the background: Yer a wizard, Harry.

  20. Is the thumbnail Stranger Things? I see Elevem, Steve, Dustin, Lucas, and Will.

  21. I thought this would be debunking the blasphemy of flat earthers thinking mars being round when there were rivers on the underside, and they somehow didn't fall into space because gravity doesn't exist in their eyes.

  22. ever is a muggle but his name is ever salazar
    i betcha his related to slytherin.

  23. My dissertation was about these ancient river rocks on Mars. This is the best video I've seen explaining these very weird rocks 🙂 well done!

  24. I take issue with you calling this really weird. This seems perfectly reasonable.

  25. There are upside down rivers in Australia ad well…. SMHing my shaken shook shaked shalin head

  26. Another great example that Earth is just the coolest planet around the block.

  27. Mars is the color of earth without water NASA computerized it red and maybe this comment is probably going down

  28. I pride myself at seldom learning something new from your excellent, both informative and entertaining videos. This one was an exception – I had no idea that "inverted relief" phenomenon existed (although it is quite clear now that you explained it). Good job!

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