Werewolves are More Realistic than the Hulk | Because Science Footnotes


♪ Almost festive ♪ ♪ Not Christmas song ♪ – There’s so much concrete
in the Hoover Dam. Do you know how much? I could give you like seven digit figures and other little tidbits,
but I don’t think any of it would really hit home. The concrete in the Hoover Dam. There’s so much of it
that if the engineers of the Hoover Dam let it cool by itself, concrete when it cures
releases a lot of heat, just part of the chemical reaction. If they let it proceed naturally, they estimated that it
would have taken 125 years to cool down, so instead
they installed a system of cooling water pipes
throughout the Hoover Dam that made the process go a lot quicker. But for the sheer volume of
concrete in the Hoover Dam, which you are seeing here now, with that amount of
concrete you could pave a 16 foot wide highway from San Francisco to New York. Eh, I’m hoovering over here. What a feat of engineering. With many feet of engineering. (banging) (upbeat music) Hello, and welcome to
another edition of Footnotes, the companion show to Because Science where I take all of your
comments, questions, and corrections and I put
some cooling pipes into them, fact pipes. Let me tell you what’s coming
up next on this channel, hint, argh! But getting right down to it, in the last episode of Because Science, we were tryin’ to figure
out what might be inside an actual super serum that
would be able to take you from zero to hero, or Chris Evans to Chris Heavens. (angelic music) Don’t you shake your head at me. I suggested a number of changes that a super serum could
make, mostly genetic, in partnership with Novaris, and they could possibly lead to… Extra strength, extra stamina,
all that sort of good stuff. You can watch the episode on
YouTube if you haven’t yet, but what did you have to say? Our first comment comes
from MrStreetly122 who says, “So this is really cool. I stumbled upon the MSTN gene,” the muscle gene we were talking about, “a while back and over time,
I’ve been compiling a list of genetic mutations that
have occurred in humans that could create a superhuman. Here’s my list. LPR5, a mutation resulting in eight times higher bone density, super sprinting gene, super sleeping gene, purple irises, and no body hair”. The last two were more or less vanity mutations for men, but Alexander’s genesis would be incredibly helpful for women. Here’s the thing. You have no idea what’s incredibly helpful for women, A. B, or two, Alexandria’s
genesis is not a real thing. Also the mutation with eight
times higher bone density, it means they can’t swim and
they got really thick bones, but they also have,
like, terrible diseases associated with that. It’s almost like you’re
missing information on a number of fronts about, like, more than half of the population. Crazy. (slurps) Next comment comes from Grant Baugh, who says the idea of serum being a virus was actually covered at
one point in the comics. I said that it wasn’t. In Issue 384, Cap received
a physical evaluation during which the doctor said, “The serum was not a mere drug, whose affects would have been metabolized and eliminated over time”,
which we said in the episode. “Instead, it must have been some sort of self-replicating virus”. So, indeed, as Grant points out, the comics did indeed
touch on the fact that whatever the super serum is, it can’t be just a simple chemical, because that will
eventually be metabolized and excreted by any super beefy body. So, I’m surprised. The comics actually got part of it right. I mean, they still have people in movies swinging on lightning, but you know, one step at a time. Our next comment comes from Rei Ayanami, who says, eight, who says, “I’ve actually been wondering
about the immediate results depicted when characters undergo their radical transformations. What would happen to your
muscles, bone, and skin, if your muscles just suddenly began to inflate to massive sizes?” This is one of my problems with The Hulk. A, or one, all that muscle mass just can’t come from anywhere. You can’t create or destroy
matter, so it’s like, people say alternate dimension, but what, what do you mean? Hulk’s getting fifth dimensional meat inserted into his body? How? Why? Doesn’t make sense. Secondly, or B, if you
were to increase in size all of Bruce Banner and
ripped your purple pants, but never off, (sexy seventies music), it would do terrible things to your body. Most people who go through these changes, lose a lot of weight,
gain a lot of muscle, when it’s in a short amount of time, they have radical physical changes that they have to deal with. If your muscles suddenly increased in size six or seven times, are your bones keeping up with this? Are your tendons? Are your ligaments? Are you just snapping
every bone in your body? That’s why I kind of like the depiction for werewolf transformation, and even more than something
like Hulk transformation, because you know, horror films, the good ones with really
good practical effects, when you see a werewolf
transform, it looks painful. Fingers are extending.
You hear cracking sounds. It’s this disgusting
full body horror show, as it should be. But it looks like it’s
affecting the body much more like how it probably
would affect the body. So, you heard it here first. Werewolves are more
realistic than The Hulk. But the nerdiest comment at the time I’m filming this episode, I’m giving to 1Lyennsey, who says, and shares a very personal story with us, who says, “Speaking on genetic disorders also being super powers,
I have a genetic condition that affects the collagen
production in my body. It’s called Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. The disability part is
near-constant joint and organ pain, and a heart condition as a consequence of faulty collagen. The super power part, though, is a super flexibility. Because my ligaments
are like rubber bands, instead of inflexible steel cables, like they should be. My nickname in dance
classes was literally, ‘Elasti-Girl’, because I was
usually the most flexible, to the point I was
borderline contortionist. Now that I am in my twenties,
it’s more of a disability since I’m going into IT. My fingers are so flexible, and weak, that typing can be painful. My spine and my neck are so flexible, that my ribs dislocate and my spinal cord becomes inflamed for being stretched and compressed”. Whoot! “This syndrome sucks, but it was cool when I was younger. Basically, I’m a Belta from the Expanse because gravity affects my body more than the average person. On my cardiovascular system, it causes blood to pool in my legs because my veins and arteries stay expanding rather than contracting. This causes brain fog, dizziness, and eventual passing out from lack of blood to the brain. Abraham Lincoln had a related genetic connective tissue disorder called Marfan’s Syndrome, which made him super tall and strong. He was known for being
an amazing wrestler, with an incredible jaw line. But this condition is also why he had to walk with a
cane in his later years. Well, I think what we tried
to outline in the episode is that, yes, there are
ways for genetic changes to make you superhuman, but, obviously, they come with risks. They come with drawbacks. There are a number of knock on effects that are too simple to
cover in a ten minute video. And, number of you point
out the ethical implications of doing something like this, but, Lynnsey, thank you so much for sharing your personal story. I hope that wherever you are, whatever you’re doing right now, you are doing fantastically, and that you were once
Elasti-Girl, in your younger years. I think that’s kinda awesome. And do you know what
else is awesome, Lynnsey? You are definitely a super nerd. (hard guitar music) (twinkling keyboard) But of course, I’m not always right. So what did I get wrong last week? Oh, and I’m sure you
definitely want to correct me. A lot of stuff that I
say here in the void. And if you want to do so,
you want to be notified about when I put up them videos,
so make sure you’re liking, commenting, and subscribing, hitting that notification bell, so you know everything that I’m doing every step of the day for me. Our first correction comes from Kaya, and a number of you who say, “Most people can’t do three pull ups”. Why you calling me out like that, man? Because most people can’t- a lot of you seem to have issue with me saying, “most people
can’t do three pull ups”. I think it’s objectively true. If you base, just like, on
what we require of students, say, in the Presidential
Fitness Challenge, if you’re from the United States, you know what I’m talking about, they don’t require all that many. And most people, I used to train people in the gym, most people I find, cannot
do a single pull up. So, ayyyyyyuhhh, if anything, you’re just proving my point. Pull ups are really hard. Pull ups are really, really hard. That’s putting your entire body weight just on a few muscle groups here. You have to work very hard, and it’s not something to be ashamed of. It’s a very hard exercise. Most people can’t do three. Most people can’t even do one. It’s something you gotta train for, like anything in life. Darren Wood has a correction, who says, “The whole can’t get drunk because of crazy high metabolism thing always confused me. Surely Captain America
can get a bit buzzed”. I actually did an episode on this once. Just a second. I called it, How Much Can
Captain America Drink? It was published in July of 2016, Episode 93. And in that, I used the
blood alcohol content formula to calculate how much
Captain America could drink, how quickly to get buzzed, and drunk. And I did this because like what you said, metabolism is a factor. And in the first film, they say, he has a metabolism that
works four times faster than the average man, and because metabolism
is actually a factor, a variable in the blood
alcohol content equation, we can actually put times
four in the equation, and calculate how buzzed
old Steve can get. And what did I say? What did I say? #Capchug, alright… To get drunk, Captain America would need, because of his enhanced metabolism, to chug a gallon of beer
in less than five minutes. A gallon of beer. Or, a half a gallon of wine, or a pint of liquor in a minute. A pint of liquor in a minute, or an entire keg over twenty four hours. That guy likes to party. Ain’t no party like a Steve Rogers party, cause a Steve Rogers party technically lives to a hundred and twelve, then dies after Peggy does. Is that what happened? Who cares? Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha. I never want to think about the logistics of that movie ever again. Our next correction comes from LanGista02, says, “Typical lab people used in the video, they
always wear safety glasses in a place where there’s
literally no danger to their eyes”. I’m only bringing this up because often when you have uh, what’s called in the biz, B roll, of scientists, they most often look very
much like scientists. They’re wearing lab coats, they’re wearing safety goggles. They have beakers, and you know, stuff, bunsen burners going, and I’m only bringing this up because I want to point out, scientists don’t look like that. Like yes, if you go into a lab where active work is being done, yeah, you can find safety
glasses and lab coats. But, for the most part, scientists look like everyone, of every race, color,
gender, sexual orientation, everything. Scientists are like everyone. They’re just a sampling of the population, and I think it’s time for the, you have to wear a lab coat or else no one will
think you’re a scientist, I think it’s time for that trope to die. It’s not entirely scientists’ fault. I will say from personal experience, that when TV shows, production companies, when they want to make a sciency thing, they will ask the science person to, hey, could you put on a
lab coat for this scene? Because you know, you’re a science person. It’s perpetuating the stereotype. And I think it’s time for it to end. Scientists look like everyone. Tweet at me, if you’re a scientist, with a selfie of yourself, with #thisiswhatascientistlookslike. Yeah. But the nerdiest correction, at the time of this video, I’m giving to two-time super nerd already, Jack Linde, or Lindy, who says, “Kyle, there
are two things you missed, and or, glossed over”. The second thing is ethics, and I did kinda gloss over this, because it wasn’t the
point of the episode, but it’s important to highlight here. So, ethics. “You glossed over by simply saying, if it’s to make super humans,
then we shouldn’t do it, but if it’s to save lives, we can do it. But you didn’t explain why, and that’s super important. The first obvious point of
ethics and gene editing, is the risk. Like I said,
CRISPR and other gene editing techniques aren’t a
hundred percent accurate. Most of the times they fail, they don’t make the necessary alterations. But they do sometimes make
an alteration to location at a spot other than
the intended sequence. Can you imagine what would happen if you were trying to swap out the genes that control red blood cell production in bone marrow, only to have your genes located in the middle of the genes that code for the productive
proteins for cell walls? You go from having a low
healthy blood cell count to having a high count of
unhealthy red blood cells. These risks are too much
for a healthy individual who’s just looking to get ripped”. This is very important. Doctors, scientists, medical researchers, in the name of science, can’t knowingly subject people to treatments, techniques, gene editing, that they know has some
substantial risk or unknown risk. It’s one thing to become
completely informed about what might happen to you, and then agree to undergo
some process or procedure. But, gene editing right
now, as hot as it is, is a field that’s still
relatively speaking, in its infancy. And so to impose that on people, just with the hopes that they get ripped, not to cure sickle cell
anemia, or what have you, that’s less of a medical imperative that would warrant this kind of risk. So right now, when things
are still in so much flux, when there is so much danger, it’s just unethical, and
Jack, for pointing that out, you are now joining an exclusive club. A three time super nerd. (hard rock music) Third. And now, moving right along to this week’s episode of Because Science, this week’s episode is ahhrrg, How Does Force Lightning Work? That’s right. In this week’s
episode of Because Science, we’re looking into the
powers of Palpitine, and other Sith Lords, to figure out how Force
lightning might work. How much power would it actually take? What would you have to do? Would that power be unlimited? No. But find out, this week, more of, eh. (Star Wars theme) But before we figure all of that out, please go watch the last episode. If you haven’t yet, all about, making a real super serum, and leave me your best,
nerdiest, comments, corrections, and questions at YouTube.com/becausescience, Facebook.com/becausescience, and @BecauseScience on
Instagram, and the Twitter. And don’t forget, it’s going
to be the holidays very soon. You’re going to be flying, you’re going to be driving, you’re going to be around a lot of people, more people than you’re usually around, so wash your hands. Sneeze bacteria can travel to basically every surface in the house in like, under two hours, if there’s a lot of people around. Wash your hands. And stop hugging your relatives. You can tell them it’s
for hygiene purposes. (upbeat electronic music)

100 thoughts on “Werewolves are More Realistic than the Hulk | Because Science Footnotes

  1. Thanks for watching, Super Nerds! Here's a link to last week's video if you haven't watched yet: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txVaF4-Xt1M — kH

  2. have you seen a Hulk transformation in movies? He screams in pain as his bones expand … blah blah blah.

  3. “Women could benefit from this”
    you don’t know what women would benefit from
    Well Kyle, considering women spend hundreds of dollars a year on razors & spend lots of time to do exactly what having that gene would prevent, that gene would objectively benefit those women financially and in terms of saving time.
    So, I guess it is possible for one human being to see what could benefit another human being.

    It is just as sexist to say a man cannot have an opinion on something women related as it is to say women can’t comment on a male issue.

  4. Gotta love all the men in the comments getting salty at Kyle for telling a dude to not assume what women do or do not want lol

  5. I mean, in highschool, I could do about 15-20 pull ups (and I weighed 210 lbs at 5'7", my BMI is very, very misleading). Of course, I gained weight due to severe depression, as it shut down my metabolism. I gained 80 lbs in 2 years, and now I cannot do a single pull up. The part that annoys me is that even at 290, I could still do push ups with clapping my hands behind my head. I lost that ability recently though, despite having lost significant weight (I was in an area where I did not get my standard amount of food).

  6. The reeeeeee-ing from all the alty "no politics in mah vidjas" boys is so good. Thanks for going in on that guy this ep Kyle.

  7. A couple years ago I could do five or six pullups in a row. But I haven't done one in a while, so it's probably down to 3 or 2 by now.

  8. we don't shave because WE don't want hair, we shave because YOU don't want us to have hair. Because something as dumb as having body hair can literally impact our employment prospects. And its easy for ya'll to say that "every woman wishes they didn't have body hair" when ya'll get to grow it as thick and wild as you want with no repercussions.
    "err hurr you probably just mad cos you a hairy binch." Nah actually I'm lucky and in theme with the weeks show I have a mutation which means I grow barely any body hair and when I do its teeny tiny transparent hairs.
    Means I only have to shave every couple of years. No. Its just that growing up with other woman all around me dealing with your shit gives me a certain level of empathy you don't seem to have.

  9. I'm a scientist… Look my profile picture… #thisiswhatascientistlookslike

  10. Thank you Kyle. Someone who can put the logistics complaint on a pedestal like I do.

  11. I honestly think I should of been a super nerd for my comment for the super serum video :/

  12. Im one of those that cant do three pull ups, because I've got this damn rotator cuff injury. I get to the second one and it feels like my shoulder's fixing to be torn apart. Shit sucks yo.

    But I can fucking squat for days.

  13. I heard of the hulk breaking bones on it's body to recreate new cells… check out Ultimate human comic #1, it tells the rest

  14. 4:00 minutes in You’re talking about where is the material would come from how about how people used to think trees got there girth from the ground when in all actuality they get their girth from the oxygen around them so what if the hulk actually got his girth from the gamma radiation around him ha ha

  15. Request:
    The Science behind Cybernetics, prosthetics, and the like. Thinking of RoboCop 1987 and 2014 but also any other instead of human repair and/or augmentation using machines.

  16. I figured he would say that moonlight had a better chance to give you super powers than radiation

  17. Hi Kyle! I don't comment a whole lot, but I wanted to point out that in the most recent iteration of the Hulk, the Immortal Hulk, Hulk transformations have taken on a much more gruesome, painful-looking aspect, a literal horror show where you see things like Banner's arms splitting apart and other scenes of body horror. And as for "fifth-dimensional meat", it's revealed that gamma radiation has a "magical" aspect to it related to The One Below All, a Satan-like figure that rules a realm that all gamma-powered beings go when they die, and is also the source of their power.

  18. Kyle you might have missed something to consider. What if the genes of the animal gives off a disease like effect if contacted with human genes and there are no symptoms of that happening?

  19. I'm a 6ft. tall 200lb man who can't get drunk. I can't imagine it's because of my metabolism, because I seem to have a fairly normal metabolism, but drinking a handle (1.75 liters) of Kraken in an hour and a half barely left me buzzed. I've always been like this, and rarely drink because it's just a waste of money for me.

    Any theories?

  20. Have a question the hover dam has enough concrete to pave that road but how thick would that road be?

  21. Just don't forget to mention it wasn't only a Dark Side thing. Jedi Master kit Fisto had a force power called, Electric Judgement, that was a Light Side power.

  22. What if Bruce Banner is just super dense and when he expands into the Hulk his density decreases to human levels?

  23. This video wasn't as math heavy (which I don't like, I like math), but it was interesting to here more stuff about ethics and political stuff.

  24. Oh Kyle, you and I are trying to tolerate each other.
    .
    Edit: next video sounds awesome!

  25. Where in The Void is your Footnotes office? Is "where" even a viable term when in The Void?

  26. so with that much concrete, what would be its carbon foot print be? How long would it take that dam to to cover its carbon foot print with clean energy?

  27. lulz, I can easily do 10 pull ups on the ledge of a door frame, cuz bars r for chumps. u r probably right that most people can't do this but everyone should be able to. just makes me sad that exercise is so disregarded by most people

  28. 12:00 so that is why you do not wan to be injected with the ancient gene. (Stargate Atlantis)

  29. How would not menstruating but still being fertile not be helpful for women, if Alexandrias genesis existed? Why would he not know whats helpful for women? Because he is male or at least because you suppose that he is a man based on his nickname? If so that's quite stupid

  30. Yea werewolves! Award for most realistic transformations! Btw, have you seen the martian? Apparently Niel Degras Tyson thinks it is very scientifically accurate. What do you think?

  31. Wanna know something else crazy about the damn? Go to one of those protrusions, lean over the edge (be extremely careful not to fall) and look down. Because you're leaning so far forward, and the concrete below those protrusions goes straight down, the dam actually appears to be curving inward for a ways before it meets the outward curve. Source: I almost got nauseous looking down, though I managed to avoid vomiting on a national landmark.

  32. The Hoover Dam is most impressive, however, the Three Gorges Dam in China is so massive that during it's construction there were severe concrete shortages worldwide due to the Chinese government literally buying all the world's supply of concrete.

  33. I predict that force lightning works kind of like the Dragon Ball energy beam, but at a lower power.

  34. I feel this was not meant to be recorded and he was unleashing his inner crudeness to the air like when you complain under your breath about the stupidity of people.

  35. Hey Kyle, love the videos, something something super villain reference.
    My questions are related to the Space Force(which the Senate approved a Defense Bill for it). How much would the Space Force cost the USA tax payers? What type of vessels would they need? What are the weapons they would need?

  36. I used to be able to pull myself up with my fingertips to see in the small window on the door to my classroom to see if the teacher was there. I don’t need to do this anymore, so I don’t know if I can anymore, but I could do a pull up with my fingertips!

  37. Yeah when doing a PCR or running an agarose gel you might see someone wearing gloves if they want to be extra careful…but as for a lab coat and goggles, as opposed to gloves, I think people forget that those are for your own protection and I really hope that nothing from people’s eyes is actively falling into tubes the size of your pinkie.

  38. Wow Kyle love how you start this by assuming your first correction has no idea what's helpful for a woman please please explain that one and I seriously hope it isn't what I'm thinking. 2:25

  39. One of the science teachers in my daughter's high school used to wear a tie dyed lab coat….

  40. Of course werewolves are more realistic than the Hulk. Wolves are real and weres are real, but we all know Hulks are fake.

  41. I think Hulk getting a lot of mass in his muscle, skin and bone, those can come from air and some water. Like Tree got large but no decrease of ground below it instead it synthesized water and air into its mighty trunk. So I think when Hulk changed he should suck the air around him and make people around him a bit nauseated due to lack of air, may be…and I believe after he went back he will be like deflated fart balloon lol.

  42. So, Kyle's now studying how to be a Sith Lord? It all makes sense. The supervillainy plans, the weird phone calls, that really terrible laugh! Good for him! It's about time he got that promotion! I mean… (Waves hand) This is not the comment you're looking for. ?

  43. Another person with Ehlers Danlo’s is current reigning RPDR winner, Yvie Oddly. She discussed it on the show with how her body causes her a lot of pain and she had to be extra careful during physical challenges. But her hyper flexibility was a strength to her in her creativity and performance. For example, in a runway look that was very monk inspired, she walked with her hands in prayer behind her back, as if she was even more in tune with her deity.

    In this sense, it’s her taking a disability and its problems, and finding where she can leverage it to be a strength. Just thought I’d share that because it’s cool.

  44. Capt. America is ignorant of the "Russian enima." Inject the highest proof vodka into your rectum for a super buzz.

  45. Actually that is something I'm looking forward to. Electrokinesis or electric manipulation in general is something I've wondered about for not just Star Wars but other media that feature it.

  46. Chugging a pint of liquor in a minute is far from superhuman. If it were so, frat boys would be superman.

  47. Here's the thing about genetic mutation where your muscles keep growing for example. Having just pure muscles in your may not be healthy or that useful in the long run. There are multiple reasons why that genetic mutation isn't the "norm", it could be that having more muscles than fat ratio can effect your cardiovascular health, or your body requiring more energy to function due to all the muscles. It's not really a superpower because real super powers are basically free energy manipulation, this genetic muscle mutation is more like min maxing where your gaining a lot of strength at the expanse of your overall health.

  48. Historically, scientist have come from an extreme socio/economic/sexual/race background.
    I.e. most scientists are white, heero males.

  49. Modern western medicine's knowledge base is founded on the pain and suffering of humans and animals. I.e. the smallpox vaccine was created from child abuse and NASA knowledge is based on NAZI crimes against humanity.

  50. NAZIs, the USAF and NASA used data obtained from crimes committed against humanity to make better serial killers and mass murders of the skies (fighter and bomber pilots.)

  51. The “Force Lightening” is probably going to have a similar explanation to how the Film Theory explained the Kameha wave from Dragon Ball.

  52. So I am half as resistant a drinker as Captain America? Not sure how to feel about that…

  53. Kyle,
    Man you were one of the best science communication experts in your field, however, over the past 6 months or so you have become increasingly annoying. This has risen to the point I can't stand most of your videos especially "Footnotes" .. wish you all the best and it's a shame your ego or whatever you allowed to happen in your life to leak through and ruin your professional career. This is just my opinion (others have expressed similar distaste but will not be mentioned by name) take it as just that, again good luck on your future endeavors.
    Wishing you the best, Brian…

  54. Well, it self explainitory, he uses a lot of dark side force to create a charge in atoms causing lightning he controls with the force.

  55. It might be too late for the labcoat stereotype. I used to do psych research, we had labcoats around for the neuroscience people. But just doing human studies as simple as giving them a survey, I would put on a labcoat because people paid better attention to the instructions. Also…since psych doesn't really have much to do in labs it felt cool.

  56. I commented on about the last 20 Because Science videos and I didn't get an appearance on Footnotes. GODDAMMIT!!

  57. When they hear "Hulk transformations", most people will think about the MCU Hulk. However, no too many recall Lou Ferrigno's version.Bill Bixby's transformation to Lou's is quite believable than any MCU has shown.

  58. God damn it xD Didn't expect that comment to lift off like that, I can do more than 3 on a good day, if I'm eating burgers it gets down to 3. On a pizza day its maybe 1, haven't tried it on a pizza day yet.

  59. From what o could find the Gly171Val mutation of LRP5 shows few negative effects. Granted there are a range of other mutations in the same region that are deleterious. 10.1359/JBMR.041223

  60. My mother has a rare bone disorder where her bones don't stop growing it's like spikes and lumps that have to be removed over time she's had 7 operations in her life and shes a school teacher and a great mother if only I could be a better Son

  61. Wait couldn't you have used the fact tony stark didn't wore a lab coat for the whole mcu as your anger against the stereotype of scientist wearing lab coats? (Do note I have forgotten some scenes from the movies so I might be wrong and if I'm wrong tell me which movie and which part did he wear a lab coat.)

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