Younger Dryas Global Deluge

Global deluge at the onset of the Younger
Dryas. The Younger Dryas was an abrupt cold period
that temporarily reversed the gradual warming trend that started after the Last Glacial
Maximum. The onset of the Younger Dryas glacial conditions
was accompanied by a rapid, world-wide rise in sea level. In his book “America Before” Graham Hancock
says that most scientists are avoiding an explanation of WHY the flood waters should
have occurred at the onset of the Younger Dryas “deep freeze” rather than 800 or 1000
years earlier during the warm phase of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial. Hancock says that “Intuitively one feels the
meltwater floods should have been at their peak during the warming phase.” So, why, in this case only, do we see them
at the onset of an extremely cold phase? He quotes the 2018 paper by Wolbach, et al.
where they present evidence that deepens the mystery. “Unlike for typical warm-to-cold climate transitions,”
they report, “global sea levels rose up to 2 to 4 meters within a few decades or less
at the Younger Dryas onset, as recorded in coral reefs in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.” Hancock emphasizes that “The point is understated,
but this is a very big deal. Two to four meters of global sea-level rise
within a few decades or less of the onset of the Younger Dryas is an IMMENSE amount
of water, a cataclysmic world flood by any standard.” This is a remarkable observation, so I decided
to look at the sources for Wolbach’s statement. Wolbach cites a 2010 paper published in the
journal Science by Edouard Bard, Bruno Hamelin, and Doriane Delanghe-Sabatier. These scientists used the uranium-thorium
method to date corals from cores drilled in the Tahiti barrier reef to determine the level
of sea rise between 14,000 and 9,000 years before the present. The graph in the publication shows that in
the fifty years between 12,900 to 12,850 years before the present, the relative sea level
increased by about three meters. That is enough water to completely flood the
first story of a typical apartment building all the way up to the ceiling. The red line shows the change in delta-oxygen-18
in the North Greenland Ice Core Project. Delta-oxygen-18 is the ratio of stable isotopes
oxygen-18 and oxygen-16. The ratio of the oxygen isotopes is commonly
used to estimate temperature because it varies directly with temperature. The onset of the precipitous drop in temperature
starts at 12,900 years before the present and continues for 50 years until 12,850 years
before the present. Fifty years is the time span of two or three
human generations. Parents and grandparents would have told their
children and grandchildren stories of a very different world because the rapid sea level
rise would have certainly caused loss of habitat, destruction of established coastal trade routes,
and displacement of seaside communities that depended on fishing. The seashores that were flooded 12,900 years
ago are now under about 64 meters of water, which is 210 feet below our current sea level
and too deep for recreational scuba diving. In 2007, the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis
proposed that one or more extraterrestrial impacts were responsible for the extinction
of the North American megafauna and the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling event. Michael Petaev, working with three coauthors,
examined an ice core from Greenland and found that, 12,900 years ago, the level of platinum
was highly elevated, as expected for an extraterrestrial impact. This graph shows the platinum concentration
in parts per trillion on a logarithmic scale, and the yellow insert shows the same data
on a linear scale. Some people have interpreted the 20 years
of elevated platinum levels as a period when the Earth was repeatedly bombarded by several
extraterrestrial objects, but this is not necessarily so. Following a single large extraterrestrial
impact, it could have taken 20 years for all the platinum particles to settle, particularly
if some of the material went into low earth orbit. How can rapid glacier melting be explained
at the onset of a cold period? In the case of the Younger Dryas, we have
to take into consideration the effect of the extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide
Ice Sheet, and the consequences of the ejecta from the impact. We also need to rely on the phase diagram
for water and well-established scientific disciplines of glacial thermal regime, thermodynamics
of freezing and crystallization, and solar radiation and the Earth’s energy balance. The extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide
Ice sheet created a shockwave and transferred a lot of energy to produce water in its three
phases: solid, liquid and gas. The crater produced by the impact displaced
material laterally by horizontal compressive forces and the shock wave sent a blast of
hot steam under the ice sheet. We will now examine what happened to the three
phases of water. The vapor plume of the extraterrestrial impact
on the Laurentide Ice Sheet consisted of steam at high pressure which provided additional
propulsion to the pieces of ice that were ejected. Water in the gaseous state dissipated into
the atmosphere creating a high pressure zone. The steam cooled as it expanded and then condensed
as liquid water and ice crystals. Liquid water ejected above the atmosphere
into the vacuum of space formed ice crystals in low Earth orbit. The crystals increased the albedo of the Earth
and reflected the light of the sun back into space. Smoke from fires ignited during the passage
of the asteroid or comet could have been cleared from the atmosphere in 20 years, but the ice
crystals orbiting 100 kilometers above the Earth could not be affected by atmospheric
phenomena like wind and rain. The ice crystals stayed in orbit until they
sublimated into water vapor. This process may have lasted 1300 years, which
determined the duration of the Younger Dryas cooling event. The ice boulders ejected by the extraterrestrial
impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet were launched in suborbital ballistic trajectories with
heights of 150 to 370 kilometers above the surface of the Earth and ranges as far as
1,500 kilometers. Oblique impacts by the ice boulders with energies
of 13 kilotons to 3 megatons of TNT liquefied unconsolidated soil and created inclined conical
cavities. Viscous relaxation reduced the depth of the
conical cavities to create shallow elliptical depressions known as the Carolina Bays and
the Nebraska Rainwater Basins. This is the phase diagram of water that indicates
the states of water at different temperatures and pressures. Of particular importance is the triple point
of water, which is the pressure below which water can only be solid or gas. The triple point corresponds to a pressure
of 612 pascals, which is the pressure 32 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. For this reason, liquid water ejected above
the atmosphere into the vacuum of space will immediately evaporate and whatever remains
turns into ice crystals. When the ice crystals in space are heated,
they can become water vapor directly in a process called sublimation. Another important part of the phase diagram
shows that increasing pressure decreases the freezing point of water. One hundred kilopascals corresponds to normal
atmospheric pressure at sea level. The bottom of a two-kilometer thick glacier,
like the Laurentide Ice Sheet, would have had a pressure of about 10 megapascals. This high pressure would have lowered the
freezing point of water and favored the formation of liquid water under the glacier. The glacial thermal regime describes how meltwater
at the base of a glacier controls transfer and deposition of debris and affects glacier
velocities and deformations. The thermal regime depends on air and ground
temperatures, with some glaciers being heated from below by geothermal heating. Many glaciers reach pressure melting point,
where ice at the base of a glacier starts to melt. In the case of the Younger Dryas, the extraterrestrial
impact fractured the Laurentide Ice Sheet and heated the ground. The warm ground accelerated the melting and
transit of the glacier even when the top of the two-kilometer thick ice sheet was exposed
to frigid air temperatures. Eighty calories must be removed from a gram
of water in order to freeze it, but water can become supercooled and stay liquid below
its freezing point before it begins to crystallize. This graph shows that the temperature of liquid
water drops below the freezing point until crystallization is triggered by a nucleation
process. The temperature then climbs to the freezing
point and it stays constant until all the water freezes. When all the water is in the solid phase,
it can continue cooling down. The effect of solar radiation on the Earth
involves many factors, such as the energy output by the sun, the physical laws governing
the transfer of energy through radiation, the distance of the Earth from the Sun that
varies according to the seasons, the Earth’s albedo, which determines how much sunlight
is reflected back into space, and the greenhouse effect caused by atmospheric gases that absorb
the sun’s rays and convert them into heat. As mentioned earlier, the water ejected above
the atmosphere by the extraterrestrial impact and water carried by the chunks of glacier
ice in their suborbital ballistic trajectories would have created a fog of ice crystals in
low Earth orbit that increased the albedo of the Earth and reflected solar radiation
back to space. For this reason, the sun could not warm the
Earth until the ice crystals sublimated. It is tempting to speculate that the sudden
rise in sea level that immediately followed the onset of the Younger Dryas was the result
of glacial meltwater released by the heat of the extraterrestrial impact. If so, it may be possible to calculate the
thermal energy produced by the extraterrestrial impact by multiplying the heat of fusion of
water by the weight of the water corresponding to the three-meter rise in sea level. Somewhere out there, there is an oceanographer
or hydrographer who knows everything about the bathymetry of the world’s oceans and can
calculate the quantity of water represented by a sea level rise of three meters 12,900
years ago. It is not a simple calculation, but it provides
a way of quantifying the Younger Dryas meteorite impact. If you are interested in more mathematical
details about the Younger Dryas Impact, check out my video on quantification. I have included a link in the description.

35 thoughts on “Younger Dryas Global Deluge

  1. This is getting to be a really great story. Thanks for assembling all this.

  2. I think there was a massive liquid water lake trapped by glacier ice dams in Northern America. A cosmetic impact could have released this water. This release of fresh water would have stopped by he Gulf Stream ocean current resulting in a cold snap in the Artic.

  3. fantastic work. Thanks! This really shows the connection between the onset of the YD and meltwater pulse 1B, and explains well how sea levels rose as it got dramatically colder. It clarified a lot for me. Do you also think that the events of the YD changed global climates to such a degree that the northern ice sheets were no longer being 'fed' or replenished in the northern hemisphere? Does the onset event explain the entire energy paradox of how that much ice melted in that short of a time frame? Or were there more events (like 11,600 YA) that also contributed to that?

  4. Thanks for the very interesting video.
    It is not necessary for ice upon land to melt into the ocean to provoke a sea level rise; although, Randall Carlson gives evidence of such flooding. It would be sufficient if enough glacial calving took place. Melt water under the ice might lubricate glacial progress to the point where much ice formerly supported by land ashore would now be floating sea ice which must displace sea water equal to its weight.
    The dates you use for the onset of the younger Dryas have me confused. My humble attempts at creating a timeline are those of a non-specialist. Some sources seem to confuse BP with BC, and in any case are apt to vary a bit. What is critical is whether flooding precedes or follows cooling. I had always assumed it followed.
    Can it snow in a hard vacuum; without nucleation how would crystals form? Only in a low quick orbit where night would come before crystals absorbed enough heat to sublimate could an ice veil even exist, I think.

  5. Another zinger from Antonio! These events are more common than most realize. Get rid of 99% of the nuclear bombs but keep some for saving the planet from these nasties.

  6. I really like this Antonio fellow. His ideas are better than most of the geologists thinking in America. What I would like Antonio to look into is the 100,000 year cycle of glaciation. The Milancovitch cycle is only part of the answer. I have a suspicion that our sun has a 100k year cycle that is greater than earth cycles.

  7. dear Mr. Zamora, i want to praise you for your the work you have put on your site, well maybe not for the blender video, but everything regarding the younger dryas is top notch, thank you for summerizing this up for us….

  8. Onset of Younger Dryas at around 10875 BC was caused by disintegrated comet impact when trajectory of comet, that already moved away from the Sun, crossed Earth orbit. There are already enough prove of that event that caused formation of ice sphere on Low Earth Orbit that dropped air temperature globally. But what caused abrupt end of Younger Dryas 1200 years later with exponential rise of temperature at 15-25F globally in just few days still is " prohibited " area of science, although there are enough proves of Solar Super Flare Event, with traces of this event found on Moon's rocks, Mars rocks, even on asteroids. Survivors of this event went underground, because life on surface became unbearable. One of the markers of this event are elevated levels of isotopes of Potassium K-40 globally in the soil in this time, including human bodies, considerably reducing duration of life of survivors.

  9. Thank You for Your great work Dr. Zamora! After the end of the video, I just stayed thinking and asking myself, if there could be also some other collateral factors taking place which resulted in the sea level rise, than just the very thermal energy of the impact causing direct melting and evaporating of the ice… Is it possible that as one of the results of the impact, there could have been a large amount of ice just mechanically displaced into the areas of warmer and salty sea waters, and being melted simply as a result of being surrounded by vast sea waters? Is it possible for huge floating icebergs to being melted in warmer sea water during a few decades? I can´t do such a calculation myself, I was just wandering if the impact-energy could be such easily calculated only on the base of amount of energy needed to melt such an amount of ice causing 3 meters of sea level rise, or the ice may have melted also due to other effects besides the very thermal energy released by the impact. Thank You for Your extremely interesting and important work!

  10. Antonio,
    If water vapor rises above Earths' protective atmosphere, wouldn't the Solar Winds, [generated by the Sun,] blow them into space?

  11. Since the Younger Dryas cataclysmic impacts happened when an ice age was waning, it is reasonable to infer that it would have aided a geologic isostatic rebound. Aided by super earthquake-like pressure waves (s and p) and cracking and shattering of bedrock followed by secondary impacts and even liquifaction of riparian (river, valley and marshy) areas. Some of these happening a multiple of 1k km away.

    The crust would have tended to rise vertically in elevation, to meet the equilibrium of when there was much more glacial weight on them hundreds of years before. Perhaps on the order of as much as 100 meters. This rising of the crust could have happened within hours of the impacts. The resulting warping and rising of the crust (in areas once deep with glaciers) would have caused lakes and liquid trapped under glaciers to suddenly break open and drain their sudden excess into the seas. It would also tend to increase the gradient (downward slope) of rivers, instantly causing them to increase in speed. A huge lake, river, and meltwater pulse.

    The effect could easily have happened in a day and a night. In some areas causing a racing deluge of mud with density and velocity that would with its momentum destroy all in its path. Like a avalanche of wet concrete almost, scouring all. Finally pushing all the accumulated debris past the continental crust and deep into the ocean. Causing the ocean across the globe to instantly rise to a corresponding new level.

  12. Has the issue of organic sediment contamination within the Carolina Bays been addressed by the impact to the much older glacial sediments ejected by an impactor impacting Laurentide Ice Sheet? OSL dating has discredited this hypothesis.

  13. When we see the Leavey Commet on a gaseous planet, I can't help but wonder if that impact would create something bigger than a mega-tsunami. How much water would it really take to flood all of the great plains from the Yukatan (or other) impact so that it wasn't a shallow sea as we are conventionally thinking but remains from a massive tsunami from an impact? Would that kind of flooding support the rapid erosion theories associated with the grand canyon and the wavy (ocean/sea floor like) topography of Nevada?

  14. I love your videos. You have pegged it well. However, there is a phenomenon related to the ice ejecta that I have yet to hear. That phenomenon is the instantaneous freezing of living mammoths in Siberia. Frozen so quickly the food material in their stomachs failed it digest.

    I propose that ice particles formed at or lifted to sub orbital altitudes, and not of large enough mass to act as projectiles were super-cooled and blown by the polar jet stream westward to fall over Siberia. The high altitude super cold air would have been displaced with it and come down over Siberia to form the instant deep freeze.

  15. I invite you to read a document I created:

    It contains a lot of images to be studied in detail, so I recommend to read it on a proper monitor and not on a cell phone.

  16. Good job. I very much appreciate your work. Thanks. The points to consider in this video are mainly that it's being assumed the data of Greenland ice cores (which means supposing the poles have remain in their current position, and that ice cores layers grow once at a year, which is very flimsy). I'm pretty sure that geographic poles have shifted (I can provide you more than 69 papers of geological evidence in-situ about islands and other sites in northern and southern hemispheres which show that the poles were located near Hudson Bay and Indian Ocean (near Heard&McDonald island).
    On the other hand, mainstream scientists may argue that Melt Water Pulse 1A and 1B added only to some hundred meters globally. There are lots of cities submerged near seaside but also in very highlands such as Tiahuanaco (Bolivian-Peruvian plateau), and other features that deserve a real high tide. This could be acomplished with other models (that doesn't look like having been considered). For instance, the Velikovskian (and others as Van Flandern, baviero, Napier, Woelfli…) hypothesis of a planet flyby. Please, take a look at thes 2 papers: () (these guys give a detailed mechanism of a 1 per 1000 km deformation of earth crust caused by a body called Planet Z [Phaeton-like] half size of Mars that got close to half the distance of the Moon with equations and so, only accounting gravitational tidal forces).

    By the way, congratulation by the way you fight dogmatic mainstreamers. ¡Clap clap! 😀

  17. So, we were living in a disco ball for 1300 years? I'll bet it looked real cool from space! On earth, would they just see a blurry haze of the sun? No heat. Probably reduced the UV, so plants would be effected. Fun times!!

  18. Genesis 7:11 IS your younger dryas event. No space meteor or comet involved. "In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, on the seventeenth day of the second month, all the fountains of the great deep burst forth , and the floodgates of the heavens were opened." Those fountains of the deep would have made all the ice and ice meteor impacts you speak of. All makes perfect sense to me. Though I think 12,900 years ago is wrong for the same reasons you say. I think it was about 5,000 – 5,500 years ago, which is more in line with the Biblical timeline.

  19. @6:09
    I still think you need to show your working on this "1300 year ice layer orbiting at 100km" claim
    AFAIK it's completely wrong.
    Orbiting material is de-orbited by both atmospheric drag and gravitational anomalies. (It's mostly drag, tho even in the theoretical absence of any atmosphere, gravitational anomalies would bring down satellites).
    Atmospheric drag DOES exist FAR above 100km, in the thermosphere up to 500km and even in the exosphere above 500km.
    Basically, atmospheric drag extends well beyond 100km and to a complexly varying degree.
    100km is an arbitrary definition of "space", in fact LEO is defined as 160 km and no practical artificial satellites orbit below 300km.
    100km LEO is nowhere near high enough to maintain orbit for 1300 years. You would require a 1000km+ orbit to achieve 1300 years in orbit. The 100km orbit you EXPLICITLY mention in this video WOULD NOT LAST ONE SINGLE DAY!!!

    I respect your work immensely but you're really not doing your case any favors with such ill informed statements on orbital mechanics. This isn't hard (tho it is rocket science). There are mountains of data out there on orbit mechanics and orbit lifetimes. You do your other meticulously detailed research a disservice by holding on to this patently absurd and really quite minor aspect of your proposal.

  20. What I do not understand it this: Just because the impact was at Saginaw Bay – it was not large enough to cause all of the glacier to melt sufficiently enough to raise the sea level 3 meters. If you consider how very large the North American ice sheets were, "13,000,000 square km (5,000,000 square miles)" x 2 miles thick = 10 million cubic miles of ice, and the massive volume of heat energy needed to liquify that amount of ice, an asteroid impact is a mere peashooter in comparison. While I agree that the impact did occur, it was not the cause of the biomass boundry layer and the massive fires, and the heat needed to melt that much glacial ice. Dr. Robert Schoch's theory of a massive solar flare or micro nova is a more likely candidate. The rapid evaporation of most of the glacial ice could account for the sea level rise in a massive solar flare event. There is however a different theory, which is the Electric Universe theory of a close encounter with another planet and massive electrical discharge between the two bodies. Here is your heat source: "The average temperature of a lightning bolt is 27,700 degrees Celsius, or five times hotter than the temperature of the surface of the Sun," You might study some of their work – it's quite interesting, and no way invalidates your work. G

  21. Another question is: Are there similar bay structures surrounding Greenland's Hiawatha Crater in Europe, Russia etc? If there was ice extant when it hit, shouldn't we see a similar phenomena to the Carolina bays? G

  22. A glacial impact vaporized billions of gallons of water and it rained for 40 days and 40 nights, that story came from somewhere. All Aboriginal people have some sort of flood story.

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